10-K

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM TO

Commission File Number 001-41199

 

Amylyx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Delaware

46-4600503

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

43 Thorndike St.

Cambridge, Massachusetts

02141

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (617) 682-0917

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

 

AMLX

 

Nasdaq Global Select Stock Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES ☐ NO ☒

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. YES ☐ NO ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. YES ☐ NO ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). YES ☒ NO ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). YES ☐ NO ☒

There was no aggregate market value of shares of common stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant as of June 30, 2021, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, because the registrant’s common stock was not trading on any exchange on that date.

The number of shares of Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of March 21, 2022 was 57,864,186.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s proxy statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

Special Notes Regarding Forward-looking Statements

1

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

Item 1.

Business

3

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

45

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

107

Item 2.

Properties

107

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

107

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

107

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

108

Item 6.

Reserved

110

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

111

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

128

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

128

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

128

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

128

Item 9B.

Other Information

129

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

129

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

130

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

130

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

130

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

130

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

130

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

130

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

132

 

 

 

Signatures

133

Consolidated Financial Statements

F-1

 

 


 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K, or Annual Report, contains forward-looking statements which are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Annual Report are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. These statements are not guarantees of future results or performance and involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report include, but are not limited to, express or implied statements about:

our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of AMX0035 and any future product candidates;
our ability to successfully commercialize and market AMX0035 and any future product candidates, if approved, and the timing of any commercialization and marketing efforts;
our ability to contract with third-party suppliers, manufacturers and other service providers and their ability to perform adequately and to produce sufficient quantities of clinical and potentially future commercial supplies;
the potential market size, opportunity and growth potential for AMX0035 and any future product candidates, if approved;
our ability to build our own sales and marketing capabilities, or seek collaborative partners, to commercialize AMX0035 and any future product candidates, if approved;
our ability to obtain funding for our operations;
the initiation, timing, progress and results of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, including our Phase 3 clinical trial of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, known as the PHOENIX trial, and our research and development activities;
our ability to retain the continued service of our key professionals and to identify, hire and retain additional qualified professionals;
our ability to advance AMX0035 and any future product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical trials;
our ability to successfully recruit and enroll suitable patients in our clinical trials;
the timing or likelihood of the accomplishment of various scientific, clinical, regulatory filings and approvals and other product development objectives;
the pricing and reimbursement of our product candidates, if approved;
the rate and degree of market acceptance AMX0035 and any future product candidates by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community;
the implementation of our business model, strategic plans for our business, product candidates and technology;
the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our product candidates and technology;
developments relating to our competitors and our industry, including any regulatory developments;
the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, capital requirements, cash runway and future and needs for additional financing;
our financial performance; and
other risks and uncertainties, including those listed under the section titled “Risk Factors.”

Any forward-looking statements in this Annual Report reflect our current views with respect to future events and with respect to our future financial performance, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, those described under Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” and

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elsewhere in this Annual Report. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future.

All of our forward-looking statements are as of the date of this Annual Report only. In each case, actual results may differ materially from such forward-looking information. We can give no assurance that such expectations or forward-looking statements will prove to be correct. An occurrence of or any material adverse change in one or more of the risk factors or risks and uncertainties referred to in this Annual Report or included in our other public disclosures or our other periodic reports or other documents or filings filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Except as required by law, we do not undertake or plan to update or revise any such forward-looking statements to reflect actual results, changes in plans, assumptions, estimates or projections or other circumstances affecting such forward-looking statements occurring after the date of this Annual Report, even if such results, changes or circumstances make it clear that any forward-looking information will not be realized. Any public statements or disclosures by us following this Annual Report that modify or impact any of the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report will be deemed to modify or supersede such statements in this Annual Report.

We may from time to time provide estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, the general business environment, and the markets for certain diseases, including estimates regarding the potential size of those markets and the estimated incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties, and actual events, circumstances or numbers, including actual disease prevalence rates and market size, may differ materially from the information reflected in this Annual Report. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business information, market data, prevalence information and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data, and similar sources, in some cases applying our own assumptions and analysis that may, in the future, prove not to have been accurate.

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PART I

Item 1. Business.

Introduction

Our mission is to develop therapies that change the treatment paradigm for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, and a broad range of other neurodegenerative diseases by keeping neurons alive. Unlike most other cells in the body that regularly die and are replaced as part of healthy function, mature neurons are normally resistant to cell death and generally cannot regenerate. We are pursuing commercialization of our product candidate, AMX0035, which we believe is the first drug candidate to show both a functional and survival benefit in a large-scale clinical trial of patients with ALS. We submitted a New Drug Submission, or NDS, in Canada in the second quarter of 2021 for AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, which was accepted for review in the third quarter of 2021, a New Drug Application, or NDA, to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, in the fourth quarter of 2021, which was accepted for priority review in the same quarter and a Marketing Authorization Application, or MAA, in Europe in the first quarter of 2022, which was validated in the same quarter. On March 30, 2022, the FDA held a virtual meeting of its Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee, or the Advisory Committee. At that meeting, on the question whether the data from our randomized, controlled Phase 2 CENTAUR trial and open-label extension, or OLE, trial established a conclusion that AMX0035 is effective in the treatment of patients with ALS, the Advisory Committee voted 4 (yes) and 6 (no). Although the FDA considers the recommendations of its advisory committees, the recommendation by the Advisory Committee is non-binding. The final decision regarding approval of a pending NDA is made by the FDA, and we remain committed to pursuing its approval given the pressing need for new treatments for ALS. The Prescription Drug User Fee Act date, the target date by which the FDA intends to complete its review and take action on the NDA for AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, is June 29, 2022. We believe AMX0035 has the potential to be a foundational therapy, meaning that it could be used alone or in conjunction with other therapies to change the treatment paradigm across a broad range of neurodegenerative diseases.

AMX0035 is a dual UPR-Bax apoptosis inhibitor composed of sodium phenylbutyrate, or PB, and TURSO (also known as tauroursodeoxycholic acid, or TUDCA). Through the resolution of the unfolded protein response, or UPR, and by inhibiting translocation of the Bcl-2 Associated X-protein, or Bax, to the outer mitochondrial membrane, we have shown in multiple models that AMX0035 can keep neurons alive under a variety of different conditions and stresses, including in in vitro models of neurodegeneration, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and disease-specific models of a variety of other conditions, as well as in vivo models of ALS, Alzheimer’s Disease, or AD, and multiple sclerosis, or MS. We are pursuing ALS as our first indication as it is a disease of rapid and profound neurodegeneration, and we are focused on the development and potential commercialization of AMX0035 for ALS globally.

In November 2021, we initiated a Phase 3 clinical trial of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, known as the PHOENIX trial, at clinical trial sites in the United States and Europe. Enrollment in this trial has completed in the United States and remains ongoing in Europe. This trial is designed to provide further data supporting the safety and efficacy of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS and to further support our global regulatory efforts. Based on dialogue with the FDA prior to our NDA submission, including at a pre-NDA meeting recommended by the FDA and subsequent discussions, we believed that data from the PHOENIX trial would not be required for the FDA to make a determination on the approval of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, although we had no assurance that the FDA would not require further data before making a determination. Based on the Advisory Committee meeting held on March 30, 2022, and the FDA’s feedback at that meeting, it remains uncertain whether additional clinical data will be required to make a determination on the approval of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS. On March 18, 2022, we announced the launch of a United States expanded access program that the FDA has authorized for people with ALS who meet eligibility criteria for participation.

In addition, we are developing AMX0035 for other neurodegenerative diseases by leveraging our deep knowledge of and relationships in the neurodegenerative space. We believe the approach of a dual UPR-Bax apoptosis inhibitor designed to help keep neurons alive could be clinically meaningful for the treatment of other neurodegenerative disease indications in addition to ALS. Many common and rare neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by substantial neuronal cellular loss, including AD and Wolfram syndrome, as well as Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Multi-System Atrophy, and others. We conducted a Phase 2 clinical trial in AD, known as the PEGASUS trial, to obtain safety data along with initial efficacy and biomarker data which could help us prioritize additional indications to pursue with AMX0035. We believe the topline results from the PEGASUS trial, reported in November 2021, provide further biological knowledge about AMX0035 which will help inform future clinical development of AMX0035 for the treatment of AD and in other potential indications. Based on these topline results, AMX0035 met the PEGASUS trial’s primary endpoint of safety and tolerability. The 6-month trial was not powered to evaluate differences between groups in efficacy outcomes

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and no differences were seen in a newly developed composite outcome of cognitive, functional, and imaging measures, or secondary efficacy endpoints of cognition, function, and imaging. In this trial, AMX0035 showed significant effects on biomarkers including the total tau protein, tau phosphorylated at threonine 181, 8-hydroxy-2’ - deoxyguanosine, or 8-OHdG, and the amyloid beta 42 to 40 (amyloid-ß1-42, amyloid-ß1-40) ratio in cerebrospinal fluid. We will continue to evaluate these data and discuss the results of the PEGASUS trial with scientific advisors as we consider potential next steps for the development of AMX0035 for the treatment of AD within our clinical development strategy. Based on preclinical evidence, we are planning to pursue a clinical trial in Wolfram syndrome. We intend to prioritize our development efforts around neurodegenerative diseases that result in substantial disability, and ultimately death, and where unmet medical needs are greatest.

Since our founding in 2013, our goal has been to improve the quality of, and extend, life for patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. One of our key strategies towards achieving this goal has been to form direct relationships with patients, their families, advocacy groups, and healthcare professionals to bring much needed innovation to patients. Throughout the development of AMX0035, we have partnered with members of the disease communities we serve, including the ALS Association, the Northeast ALS Consortium, or NEALS, ALS Finding a Cure, the Healey Center at Massachusetts General Hospital, the Cure Alzheimer’s Fund, the Alzheimer’s Association and the Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation, to ensure our goals are aligned with patient needs. In addition, many of the key opinion leaders in the ALS community were and are investigators in our recent and ongoing trials. These relationships are a cornerstone of our culture and corporate strategy.

Our current pipeline, including the stage of development of AMX0035 in our target indications, is represented in the table below.

https://cdn.kscope.io/7526cb9cde9c53dd5402524459694a8d-img88388660_0.jpg 

 

AMX0035 is a proprietary oral fixed-dose combination of two small molecules: PB, which is a small molecular chaperone that reduces the UPR, preventing cell death resulting from the UPR, and TURSO, (also known as tauroursodeoxycholic acid, or TUDCA), which is a Bax inhibitor that reduces cell death through apoptosis. While the PB and TURSO molecules individually are not proprietary to us, we own patents and patent applications covering AMX0035, including the fixed-dose combination of AMX0035 itself. We believe that our proprietary combination of these two mechanisms of action will allow us to target abnormal cell death to better prevent neurodegeneration than treatment with either mechanism of action alone. In in vitro studies, PB and TURSO were observed in combination to prevent nearly 100% of neuron death. However, PB and TURSO alone only prevented a moderate percentage of neuron death in in vitro studies.

The results of our CENTAUR trial were published in September 2020 in the New England Journal of Medicine and in October 2020 in the Journal of Muscle and Nerve. Trial results showed that patients receiving AMX0035 experienced statistically significant benefit in retention of function, as measured by the Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale, or ALSFRS-R, as well as statistically significant improvement in overall survival, when analyzing the full randomized population through the OLE trial (July 20, 2020 data cutoff). AMX0035 was shown to be generally well-tolerated with the

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prevalence of adverse events comparable across placebo and treatment groups. In addition, we have updated our survival analysis as of March 2021, and included that data in our NDA filing. We believe AMX0035 is the first drug candidate in ALS to demonstrate a statistically significant benefit both in function as measured by a prespecified mean rate change in ALSFRS-R and in a longer-term analysis of overall survival, which are both important outcomes for people with ALS.

Our Company and Team

Amylyx was founded with the ambitious goal of improving the quality and length of life for patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. From a dorm room at Brown University in 2013, our Co-CEOs and Co-Founders, Josh Cohen and Justin Klee set out to determine why neurons die, and have ever since been working to develop AMX0035, which we believe is the first drug candidate to show a clear effect on function and survival in ALS, and other novel therapies. To help realize our goal, we have assembled a team with deep scientific, clinical, business and leadership experience, bolstered by expertise in biotechnology. Our Chief Financial Officer, James Frates, brings over 20 years of experience as the Chief Financial Officer of Alkermes. Our Chief Commercial Officer, Margaret Olinger, brings three decades of expertise in commercial launches and operations, most recently at Alexion. Our Chief Technical Operations Officer, Tom Holmes, brings more than 25 years of leadership experience at Biogen in supply chain, biopharmaceutical manufacturing and program management. Our Chief Medical Officer, Patrick D. Yeramian, brings over 30 years of medical and pharmaceutical industry experience. Our Head of Regulatory Affairs, Tammy Sarnelli, brings more than 30 years of experience from Biogen and other companies in early and late-stage neurology and rare disease development. Our Chief Human Resources Officer, Debra Canner, brings over 30 years of experience, having served as the Chief of Human Resources Officers at Akamai and as part of Genzyme. Our Chief Legal Officer and General Counsel, Gina M. Mazzariello, brings more than 20 years of corporate and commercial legal experience in the healthcare industry, including holding leadership positions at Boehringer Ingelheim USA, Inc. This team brings a diverse set of skills uniquely suited to drive successful commercialization of AMX0035 in ALS while continuing to advance AMX0035 in other indications.

Our Strategy

Our mission is to change the treatment paradigm for neurodegenerative diseases. Key elements of our strategy to achieve this mission include:

Obtaining regulatory approval of AMX0035 for ALS in Canada, the United States and Europe. Based on the results from our CENTAUR trial, we have been exploring pathways towards regulatory approval in several territories, including Canada, the United States and Europe. We believe that the CENTAUR trial may be able to support regulatory approval in Canada and the United States and marketing authorization in Europe. We submitted an NDS in Canada in the second quarter of 2021, an NDA in the United States in the fourth quarter of 2021 and an MAA in Europe in the first quarter of 2022, which was validated in the same quarter. We initiated our global Phase 3 PHOENIX trial of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS in the fourth quarter of 2021 to further support our global regulatory efforts.
Effectively and efficiently commercializing AMX0035 for ALS in key territories, if approved. We submitted an NDS in Canada in the second quarter of 2021, an NDA in the United States in the fourth quarter of 2021 and an MAA in Europe in the first quarter of 2022 and, subject to receiving marketing approval, we would expect to launch AMX0035 for ALS in Canada and the United States in the third quarter of 2022. We are currently building our sales team, internal capabilities and outside vendor network to support commercialization. We believe these capabilities, coupled with our understanding of the ALS patient and medical community, will enable us to launch AMX0035 for ALS successfully, if approved. We anticipate that our commercial infrastructure will be scalable for subsequent neurodegenerative disease launches beyond ALS in the United States and other key markets if we receive marketing approval in these territories as well. Our commercial operations are led by Margaret Olinger, who was an early commercial employee at Alexion and helped lead the launches of Soliris for the treatment of PNH and aHUH and Strensiq for the treatment of perinatal/infantile- and juvenile-onset hypophosphatasia.
Maximizing the therapeutic potential of AMX0035 by expanding into additional neurodegenerative diseases. We believe the data from the CENTAUR trial showing a functional and survival benefit for ALS patients treated with AMX0035 validates its mechanism of targeting endoplasmic reticulum, or ER, stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Based on our extensive understanding of disease pathways, we believe AMX0035 may provide benefit across multiple diseases characterized by neurodegeneration. As we select the next indications for AMX0035 we will prioritize those indications which we believe, if successful, will most rapidly lead to additional indications and to patient benefit. We conducted our Phase 2 PEGASUS clinical trial in AD to obtain safety data along with initial efficacy and biomarker data which will help us guide further development of AMX0035 for the

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treatment of AD within our clinical development strategy. We expect to submit an IND for AMX0035 in Wolfram syndrome in 2022. We expect to submit an IND for one additional indication in 2022.
Continuing to cultivate a network of patient advocacy groups, key opinion leaders, research institutions, and healthcare professionals to inform our patient-centric approach. We have cultivated a network of key constituents, which we believe will continue to help us to develop therapies in an efficient and impactful manner. Integrating the experiences and insights from these parties, which include patients, their families, and organizations such as the ALS Association, NEALS, ALS Finding a Cure, the Healey Center at Massachusetts General Hospital, the Cure Alzheimer’s Fund, the Alzheimer’s Association and the Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation, continues to inform our approach to developing therapies that can potentially transform the lives of patients and their families. We intend to will continue to engage with each of these constituents through conferences, clinical trials and informal communications as we further develop and pursue commercialization of AMX0035.
Deploying a strategic approach to design, acquire and develop new therapies. We follow a scientifically rigorous approach to evaluating new opportunities to broaden our portfolio. We plan to target assets that allow us to leverage our experience with neurodegenerative pathways and AMX0035’s mechanism of action. When evaluating assets, we consider not only our ability to apply our experience with AMX0035 but also a variety of factors, including unmet medical need, biological rationale, feasibility of clinical development, potential for regulatory approval, costs of development, competitive landscape and commercial potential.

Neurodegenerative Disease

The prevention of neurodegeneration represents one of today’s most significant unmet medical needs. The development of therapies that preserve neuron health has historically presented unique challenges, including an imperfect understanding of underlying biology and a lack of translation of activity observed in preclinical studies to results in clinical trials. Currently approved therapies for many neurodegenerative diseases are generally only symptom modifying and have demonstrated limited efficacy. There remains an urgent need for novel approaches to address most neurodegenerative diseases, especially for progressive and severe conditions such as ALS.

The Role of the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria in Neurodegenerative Disease

Unlike most other cells in the body that regularly die and are replaced as part of healthy function, mature neurons are normally resistant to cell death and generally cannot regenerate. Neuron death is only triggered when multiple stress factors are activated beyond the neuron’s recovery capacity, a circumstance commonly seen in neurodegenerative disorders. Most neurodegenerative disorders have complex pathophysiology, with multiple pathways contributing and converging to eventually cause neuron death. A large fraction of these pathological changes in neurons can be linked to dysfunction in the ER and mitochondria that affect metabolism and secretion of lipids and proteins, calcium homeostasis, and energy production. Dysfunction in these two essential cellular structures is implicated across many neurodegenerative disorders, highlighting the central role they play in maintaining neuron health and survival and providing the rationale for our focus, which is to rescue ER and mitochondrial function, and to protect and preserve neurons.

ER Stress

The ER is responsible for protein and lipid synthesis, folding and quality control of proteins, and storing calcium for cellular energy production by the mitochondria. The ER is also a primary sensor of stressful intracellular conditions, activating a wide number of molecular pathways that belong to a specific process, referred to as the ER stress response, that controls protein homeostasis. ER stress, or dysfunction associated with protein misfolding and aggregation, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. In neurodegenerative disorders, misfolded proteins and accumulations of protein aggregates can cause oxidative stress and a feedback loop resulting in ER stress. When the ER stress response is activated due to misfolded and aggregated proteins, the UPR, is engaged as a regulatory mechanism to reduce the load of misfolded proteins and restore a healthy cellular state. Molecular chaperones are the critical regulators of protein homeostasis under ER stress. Pathological conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases that disturb protein folding

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and maturation can trigger ER stress and engage the UPR. When the natural protein homeostasis in the cell cannot be achieved, the UPR triggers cellular death, or apoptosis.

Mitochondrial Dysfunction

The mitochondria are a central regulatory point for the control of cell death. When mitochondria detect sufficient cell damage, they signal for the cell to initiate a cell death cascade. Among other steps, this cascade includes the recruitment of a series of apoptotic proteins including Bcl-2-associated X protein, or BAX, the release of cytochrome c from a pore in the mitochondrial membrane called the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, and finally the activation of caspase 3, an executioner protein for apoptosis.

In neurodegenerative diseases, triggers such as altered calcium homeostasis, glutamate excitation of the cell, damage to the mitochondria or mitochondrial DNA and detection of aberrant double-stranded DNA and accumulation of unfolded proteins at the mitochondria all lead to mitochondrially mediated cell death. Inhibition of proteins such as BAX could result in a greater threshold for cell death and longer survival of key neurons implicated in the progression of neurodegenerative disease.

Linkage Between Mitochondria and ER

The mitochondria and the ER are often physically linked by a membrane called the mitochondrial associated ER membrane, or MAM. Through this linkage, calcium and molecules are shuttled between the two organelles. It is our belief that this connection, or crosstalk, allows the cell to integrate responses between the two organelles and that activation of mitochondrial damage pathways will activate the UPR and vice versa.

Both the mitochondria and the UPR in the ER can trigger cell death. As such, we believe both pathways are crucial to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and both need to be addressed simultaneously to effect a substantial change in survival of neurons undergoing neurodegenerative processes.

Background and Rationale for AMX0035

We have designed AMX0035 to reduce neuron death through simultaneous mitigation of ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. AMX0035 is a coformulation of two small molecules, PB and TURSO. PB has been shown to reduce ER stress through upregulation of a protein known as DJ-1 that is a master chaperone regulator, recruitment of other chaperone proteins, and as a small molecular chaperone. TURSO is a bile acid that has been shown to recover mitochondrial bioenergetic deficits through incorporation into the mitochondrial membrane, reducing BAX translocation to the mitochondrial membrane, reducing mitochondrial permeability, and increasing the apoptotic threshold of the cell. Through our research, we identified the specific ratios at which the combination of PB and TURSO target these critical, connected pathways and show synergistic activity in improving neuronal cell viability in vitro. We then developed AMX0035 as an optimized oral formulation to be tested in vivo and clinically.

Our preclinical studies have shown that PB and TURSO, in combination, can inhibit a number of pathological pathways associated with neurodegenerative diseases in cell culture and animal models. For example, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, we tested the potential abilities of PB and TURSO individually and in combination to prevent oxidative-induced neuronal death, or cell viability, which was measured using a PrestoBlue reagent. In this experiment, hydrogen peroxide was applied to rat primary cortical neurons in a concentration sufficient to kill approximately 40% of the neurons. Particular doses of PB and TURSO individually protected against some of the neuron death, and cell viability reached approximately 80%. However, when these rat primary cortical neurons were dosed with particular ratios of PB and TURSO

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in combination, nearly 100% of oxidative-induced neuron death was prevented. The results of this in vitro model are shown in the graphic below.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/7526cb9cde9c53dd5402524459694a8d-img88388660_1.jpg 

Additionally, we have observed benefit from the administration of particular ratios of PB and TURSO across in vitro models of ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and disease specific models of ALS, AD, Parkinson’s disease, MS, Friedreich’s Ataxia, primary mitochondrial myopathies and a variety of other conditions. We have also conducted in vivo models of PB and TURSO, in combination, including models of ALS, AD and MS. Additionally, academic groups have conducted studies with monotherapy treatment with TURSO and/or PB in models of ALS, AD, MS, Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Multi-System Atrophy, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and a variety of other models. We believe this body of evidence collectively supports the use of this combination to treat neurodegenerative indications and led us to pursue the development of our proprietary drug candidate, AMX0035.

AMX0035 for the Treatment of ALS

Overview of ALS

We are initially developing AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, a progressive, and fatal neurodegenerative disorder of the neuromuscular system resulting in muscle weakness and paralysis leading to death. ALS involves the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain that are responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement. This progressive loss of motor neurons leads to muscle weakness, loss of muscle mass, and inability to control movement. ALS remains universally fatal with a median survival of less than three years from symptom onset and less than two years from diagnosis. Despite being classified as a rare disease by the FDA and the EMA, ALS is considered one of the more common adult-onset neuromuscular diseases worldwide. Public sources estimate that there are more than 29,000 ALS patients in the United States. More than 30,000 ALS patients are estimated to be living with ALS in Europe (European Union and United Kingdom), and approximately 3,000 ALS patients are estimated to be located in Canada. Over 90% of patients have no family history of ALS, known as “sporadic” ALS. While other development approaches seek to address genetic instances of ALS, AMX0035 is designed to target all instances of ALS, regardless of whether it is sporadic or genetic. Due to the two-year median survival of patients diagnosed with ALS, a high proportion of the patient population has been recently diagnosed and a therapy that is able to improve the survival of patients with ALS has the potential to increase the number of patients who are able to continue living with their disease.

Medical costs for patients newly diagnosed with ALS in the United States are substantial and increase rapidly with each disability milestone. Care of patients with ALS is intensive and requires a team of medical professionals, special equipment, and assistance with daily activities. Caregivers are often forced to miss work or give up employment opportunities to provide care, leading to increased financial strain. The disease also impacts the patient’s family, who generally provide the bulk of caregiving, which often entails the provision of 24-hour care. The constant adaptation of

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caregivers to the demands of the ALS disease progression requires significant physical effort and mental exhaustion particularly during the advanced stages of the disease.

Significant Unmet Need in ALS

ALS is a heterogeneous disease that arises from multiple mechanistic underpinnings, leading patients to experience variable onset and delayed diagnosis, persistent progression and loss of muscle function, and shortened survival.

There is a significant unmet need for ALS therapies that target multiple pathogenic pathways, are disease-modifying, and can provide both functional and survival benefit to patients. Only two FDA-approved therapeutic agents for ALS, riluzole, an anti-glutamatergic agent, and edaravone, a free-radical scavenger, have been shown to modulate the course of ALS. In pivotal clinical trials, riluzole demonstrated longer time to tracheostomy or death compared to placebo and edaravone demonstrated longer retention of function compared to placebo. However, a need remains for ALS therapies that demonstrate both retention of function and longer survival, allowing patients to maintain greater independence for longer.

Due to the multi-pathway pathophysiology of ALS, experts agree that successful treatment will likely require concurrent targeting of multiple key neuronal death pathways. There is a strong rationale for treatments that target identified convergence points of these critical pathways, including in the ER and mitochondria, and we believe that a therapy that targets multiple pathways at once, like AMX0035, aligns with the emerging ALS treatment paradigm.

Clinical Development of AMX0035 for ALS

We designed our Phase 2 CENTAUR trial with input from leading ALS experts from NEALS to detect a significant difference between AMX0035 and placebo. The study also provided the option for participants to continue with available approved therapies, riluzole and edaravone, for the duration of the trial. The FDA granted Orphan Drug Designation for AMX0035 for the treatment of patients with ALS in September 2017. The EMA granted orphan designation to AMX0035 for the treatment of patients with ALS in April 2020. In December 2019, we announced positive topline results from our CENTAUR trial. The trial met its primary endpoint, and we published detailed trial data in the New England Journal of Medicine in September 2020 and in the Journal of Muscle and Nerve in October 2020. We submitted an NDS in Canada in the second quarter of 2021, an NDA in the United States in the fourth quarter of 2021 and an MAA in Europe in the first quarter of 2022.

CENTAUR, Our Phase 2 Trial of AMX0035 in ALS

In September 2020, we published detailed results from the Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled CENTAUR trial. The CENTAUR trial was conducted at 25 centers of the NEALS, and evaluated adult patients with ALS. Key inclusion criteria were definite ALS defined by the revised El Escorial criteria, which entails having various clinical signs and symptoms, defined as upper and lower motor neuron signs, in at least three defined body regions, less than 18 months from symptom onset and slow vital capacity, or SVC, greater than 60%. These criteria were chosen to select a homogenous, rapidly progressing patient population to potentially increase the likelihood of observing a treatment effect. Participants were allowed to continue on their selected standard of care, including treatment with riluzole and/or edaravone. Eligible participants (n=137) were randomized two-to-one to treatment with AMX0035, one sachet (each containing one gram of TURSO and three grams of PB) given once daily for the first three weeks, and if tolerated, the dose was then increased to twice-daily for the remainder of a 24-week treatment period, or matching placebo. Two participants did not have follow-up efficacy assessments and were not included in the efficacy population (modified intention to treat, or mITT, n=135). These two participants were included in the safety population (intention to treat, or ITT, n=137). Upon completion of the 24-week, parallel group phase of the trial, participants were eligible to enroll in the OLE trial in which all participants were followed up to 35 months while participants and physicians remained blinded to the original treatment group. Of participants completing the CENTAUR trial randomization phase, 92% of eligible patients elected to enroll in the OLE trial. The first protocol of the OLE trial was completed in March 2021. Actual duration of patient treatments across the

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randomization phase and the OLE trial, both with the PB-TURSO combination and via placebo, are shown in the graphic below:

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/7526cb9cde9c53dd5402524459694a8d-img88388660_2.jpg 

The primary efficacy outcome measure for the CENTAUR trial was the rate of decline in the ALSFRS-R total score. The ALSFRS-R scale is the most widely used ALS rating scale in ALS clinical practice and in ALS clinical trials. It measures patient’s functional ability and is broken down into four domains: bulbar (which includes speech, salivation and swallowing), fine motor (which includes handwriting, cutting food/handling utensils, dressing and hygiene), gross motor (which includes turning in bed, walking, and climbing stairs) and breathing (which includes dyspnea, orthopnea and respiratory insufficiency). A decrease of one point on the ALSFRS-R scale can reflect severe limitations in a patient’s independence, and a two-point increase on the ALSFRS-R scale would be associated with:

eating successfully with some difficulty instead of needing a feeding tube;
being short of breath only while walking instead of having difficulty breathing while sitting or lying down; and
being able to dress independently instead of needing assistance.

The CENTAUR trial met its primary endpoint with a statistically significant reduction in clinical decline among participants randomized to AMX0035 (n=87) compared to placebo (n=48) (p-value of 0.03) over 24 weeks. These results published in the New England Journal of Medicine showed that patients receiving AMX0035 scored an average of 2.32 points higher on the ALSFRS-R as compared to patients receiving placebo after 24 weeks, a difference of 25%, as shown in the graph below. In a survey of ALS clinicians and researchers conducted and sponsored by NEALS, with the objective of determining what percentage reduction in ALSFRS-R would be considered clinically meaningful, a difference of greater than

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or equal to 20% in ALSFRS-R total score was considered clinically meaningful by a majority of clinicians and researchers surveyed.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/7526cb9cde9c53dd5402524459694a8d-img88388660_3.jpg 

Secondary efficacy outcomes measuring disease free progression were the decline in muscle strength as measured by Accurate Test of Limb Isometric Strength, or ATLIS, testing and lung function measured by SVC, both expressed as percent of predicted values and key study events including death, permanent ventilation and hospitalization. Neurofilament was also measured as a biologic measure. The analysis also indicated statistically significant preservation of upper limb strength with AMX0035 treatment measured on ATLIS (p=0.042), while the lower limb measure did not reach statistical significance (p=0.34). An average of these two, referred to as the total ATLIS score, trended in favor of AMX0035 (p=0.11). There was also a trend in favor of AMX0035 therapy preserving lung function as measured by SVC, with a numerical difference of 5.11% although this was not statistically significant (p=0.076). These efficacy data are summarized in the table below. In addition, a time-to-event analysis was conducted on key study events including death, permanent ventilation and hospitalization events over the 24-week randomized phase of the trial. Because enrollment of patients in the CENTAUR trial was limited to patients who, in the investigator’s opinion, would be able to complete 6-month follow up, few events of this nature were expected during the initial, 24-week randomized phase of the trial. As a result, we observed a positive, but not statistically significant, difference between the trial’s treatment and control groups during the 24-week randomized phase of

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the study. There was no statistically significant difference between the rate of decline in plasma levels of the neurofilament observed in the trial’s treatment and control groups during the 24-week randomized phase of the study.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/7526cb9cde9c53dd5402524459694a8d-img88388660_4.jpg 

Phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain was measured in plasma in the CENTAUR trial. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in this outcome. A limitation of this outcome is that it was measured in plasma rather than cerebrospinal fluid and the ultimate relevance of this outcome in ALS is still under investigation by the field.

It is important to note that most (77%) participants were receiving riluzole or edaravone at or before study entry, with a greater proportion receiving edaravone in the placebo group (50%) compared with the AMX0035 group (25%). Pre-specified analyses were conducted to determine if the use of concomitant medications impacted results. These analyses found that AMX0035’s effect on the primary outcome was consistent regardless of use of concomitant medications (riluzole and/or edaravone).

Overall survival was analyzed for all subjects randomized in the CENTAUR trial (ITT analysis) and compared patients originally randomized to AMX0035 (n=89) with those randomized to placebo (n=48). In this analysis, the vital status of each participant was measured by a participant locating service which used sources such as the U.S. social security death index up to July 20, 2020 even if he or she did not continue into the OLE trial, stopped study drug, dropped out of the study or was lost to follow-up. Over the duration of follow up, the risk of death was 44% lower among those originally randomized to AMX0035 compared with those originally randomized to placebo (hazard ratio, or HR, of 0.56; a 95% confidence interval, or CI, ranging from 0.34 to 0.92; and a p-value of 0.023). Median survival duration was 25.0 months (95% CI of 19.0 to 33.6 months) in the group previously randomized to AMX0035 and 18.5 months (95% CI of 13.5 to 23.2 months) in the group

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previously randomized to placebo as seen in the graph below. Participants originally randomized to AMX0035 received a median 6.5 months more of AMX0035 treatments than those originally randomized to placebo.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/7526cb9cde9c53dd5402524459694a8d-img88388660_5.jpg 

Additional survival data from the CENTAUR trial with a March 1, 2021 cut-off were shared at the March 30, 2022 Advisory Committee meeting. These correspond to the last participant last visit in the open-label phase and was requested by the FDA. This ITT overall survival analysis showed a statistically significant survival benefit for participants originally randomized to AMX0035. These data (HR of 0.64; median survival difference of 4.8 months; p-value of 0.045) are consistent with the prior overall survival analyses. We also performed sensitivity analyses on the CENTAUR trial data, including a joint rank test, which showed no bias in the estimate of the primary functional outcome by loss of data due to participant death. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to account for missing data and death or death-equivalent events. These sensitivity analyses yielded results similar to the primary analysis. In sensitivity analyses designed to account for concomitant medication use, the treatment effect size was consistent between primary analysis and analyses corrected for concomitant medication use.

AMX0035 was generally well-tolerated over 24 weeks of randomized treatment with an adverse event rate substantially similar to placebo. Adverse events, or AEs, were reported in 97% (86 out of 89) of participants receiving AMX0035 and 96% (46 out of 48) of participants receiving placebo, with the nature of the AEs being substantially similar in both groups. The most commonly occurring (greater than or equal to 5%) AEs in either treatment group are shown in the table below. Because of the progressive neurodegenerative nature of ALS, many of these AEs (e.g., muscle weakness, falls, dyspnea, fatigue) were likely attributable to the underlying ALS disease. Events occurring in greater than or equal to 5% of patients in either treatment group and more frequently (greater than or equal to 2% of patients) in patients who received AMX0035 compared with those who received placebo were predominantly gastrointestinal events, which were non-serious and mostly mild in intensity and declined considerably in occurrence after three weeks on treatment. A total of 19% of the patients in the AMX0035 treatment group and 8% of the patients in the placebo group discontinued the trial regimen owing to AEs.

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The most commonly occurring AEs were diarrhea, constipation, nausea, muscular weakness, fall, headache, dizziness and viral upper respiratory tract infection. Health Canada also noted the occurrence of hypersalivation. Consistent with the known safety profile of TURSO, diarrhea and nausea occurred more frequently in patients who received AMX0035 compared with those who received placebo. In contrast, muscular weakness, fall, constipation and headache occurred more frequently in patients who received placebo. The observed AEs from the CENTAUR trial are summarized in the chart below.

 

Adverse Events (AEs)(1) Occurring in >5% of Patients in either Treatment Group
(Safety Population, n=137)

MedDRA System Organ Class Preferred Term

 

Placebo + SOC
(n=48)

 

AMX0035 + SOC
(n=89)

 

Overall
(n=137)

Gastrointestinal disorders

 

29 (60.4)%

 

60 (67.4)%

 

89 (65.0)%

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

 

21 (43.8)%

 

38 (42.7)%

 

59 (43.1)%

Injury, poisoning and procedural complications

 

23 (47.9)%

 

35 (39.3)%

 

58 (42.3)%

Nervous system disorders

 

19 (39.6)%

 

33 (37.1)%

 

52 (38.0)%

Infections and infestations

 

21 (43.8)%

 

28 (31.5)%

 

49 (35.8)%

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

 

10 (20.8)%

 

29 (32.6)%

 

39 (28.5)%

Investigations

 

10 (20.8)%

 

26 (29.2)%

 

36 (26.3)%

General disorders and administration site conditions

 

13 (27.1)%

 

20 (22.5)%

 

33 (24.1)%

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

 

8 (16.7)%

 

16 (18.0)%

 

24 (17.5)%

Psychiatric disorders

 

9 (18.8)%

 

14 (15.7)%

 

23 (16.8)%

Renal and urinary disorders

 

8 (16.7)%

 

10 (11.2)%

 

18 (13.1)%

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

 

4 (8.3)%

 

10 (11.2)%

 

14 (10.2)%

Cardiac disorders

 

0 (0.0)%

 

7 (7.9)%

 

7 (5.1)%

Eye disorders

 

1 (2.1)%

 

5 (5.6)%

 

6 (4.4)%

 

(1)
Includes serious adverse events.

Serious adverse events, or SAEs, occurred less frequently in the AMX0035 treatment group (12.4% of patients) compared with the placebo treatment group (18.8% of patients). This difference was largely driven by a higher incidence of respiratory events, including respiratory failure in the placebo treatment group (8.3% of patients), compared with the AMX0035 treatment group (3.4% of patients). ALS disease progression often leads to respiratory failure, and it is the most common cause of death in patients with ALS. The observed SAEs from the CENTAUR trial are summarized in the chart below.

Serious Adverse Events (SAEs)

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/7526cb9cde9c53dd5402524459694a8d-img88388660_6.jpg 

Overall, a total of seven patients (two (4% of patients) who received placebo and five (6% of total patients) who received AMX0035) died during the conduct of the 24-week, double-blind study. None of the deaths was considered by the investigator to be related to AMX0035. Consistent with the most common cause of death in patients with ALS, the majority (four of seven patients) of deaths during the study were from respiratory failure (two patients in each group). Other causes of death (in the AMX0035 group) included respiratory arrest attributed to aspiration pneumonia, diverticulitis perforation, and subdural hematoma secondary to a fall. Death equivalent was defined as either tracheostomy or permanent assisted ventilation, or PAV. PAV was defined as more than 22 hours daily of non-invasive mechanical ventilation for more than one week (seven days). One patient in the placebo group (2% of patients) and none in the AMX0035 group experienced a death equivalent event (i.e., tracheostomy) during the 24-week study.

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We believe AMX0035 is the first drug candidate in ALS to demonstrate a statistically significant benefit both in function as measured by a prespecified mean rate change in ALSFRS-R and in a longer-term analysis of overall survival, both important outcomes for people with ALS. In summary, patients in our CENTAUR trial showed a statistically significant improvement in function and a statistically significant improvement in overall survival and AMX0035 was shown to be generally well-tolerated.

Clinical Development Plan of AMX0035 in ALS

We submitted an NDS for AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS to Health Canada in the second quarter of 2021, which was accepted for review in the third quarter of 2021, an NDA to the FDA in the fourth quarter of 2021, which was accepted for priority review in the same quarter and an MAA for approval of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS to the EMA Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use in the first quarter of 2022. The Prescription Drug User Fee Act date, the target date by which the FDA intends to complete its review and take action on the NDA for AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, is June 29, 2022. In November 2021, we initiated our global 48-week PHOENIX, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. We expect to recruit approximately 600 patients from approximately 65 European and United States sites. The primary endpoints of our PHOENIX trial will be a composite measure of survival and ALSFRS-R total score progression over 48 weeks and safety and tolerability over 48 weeks. The secondary endpoints of our PHOENIX trial will be SVC, ALSAQ-40 (a questionnaire which provides a subjective health measure to specifically assess quality of life for patients with ALS), EQ5D-5L (a standard qualify of life measure), decline in King’s (a staging measurement in ALS based on the number of central nervous system,or CNS, regions involved and requirement for gastrostomy or noninvasive ventilation) and MiToS stages (a functional staging measure that can be derived prospectively from the ALSFRS-R subscore using standard methods), ventilation free survival, and long-term survival. Key inclusion criteria for the PHOENIX trial include ALS patients with clinically definite or clinically probable ALS by El Escorial criteria (2-4 body areas with clinical signs consistent with ALS), <24 months from symptom onset, SVC >55%, and riluzole/edaravone use permitted. The PHOENIX trial is designed to provide further data supporting the safety and efficacy of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS to further support our global regulatory efforts. Based on dialogue with the FDA prior to our NDA submission, including at a pre-NDA meeting recommended by the FDA and subsequent discussions, we believed that data from the PHOENIX trial would not be required for the FDA to make a determination on the approval of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, although we had no assurance that the FDA would not require further data before making a determination. Based on the Advisory Committee meeting held on March 30, 2022, and the FDA’s feedback at that meeting, it remains uncertain whether additional clinical data will be required to make a determination on the approval of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS.

Any regulatory approvals we may receive may be limited or subject to restrictions or post-approval commitments.

AMX0035 for the Treatment of Other Potential Indications

Based on our extensive understanding of disease pathways, we believe AMX0035 may provide benefit across multiple diseases, including AD, Wolfram syndrome, Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Multi-System Atrophy, primary lateral sclerosis, ischemic stroke, MS, Friedreich’s ataxia, Leigh’s syndrome and Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy.

We are prioritizing these conditions on an indication-by-indication basis, based on the strength of the data supporting AMX0035’s potential, including the data from our recently completed PEGASUS trial; the urgency of the unmet need; the practicality of conducting clinical trials in these conditions; the efficiency of clinical development activities; and the commercial potential. For some of these indications, given the data already produced by the company on AMX0035, we believe it may be possible to move directly into Phase 3 evaluations of safety and efficacy which could allow for a rapid development pathway. We will prioritize those indications which we believe have the greatest chance of providing patients with benefit and the most rapid pathway to market.

We plan to submit an IND for AMX0035 in Wolfram syndrome in 2022. Subject to acceptance of this IND, we plan to initiate a proof of concept Phase 2 clinical trial in Wolfram syndrome. We plan to submit an additional IND for AMX0035 in another indication in 2022.

Clinical Development of AMX0035 for AD

We designed our multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2 PEGASUS trial with AD experts to evaluate the safety, tolerability and activity of AMX0035 in patients with late mild cognitive impairment, or MCI,

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or early-to-moderate dementia. The PEGASUS trial was designed to have broad entry criteria to include participants at different stages of AD to allow us to assess the biological effect of AMX0035 across the spectrum of disease and determine if there are any patients who might see a greater benefit from therapy. Eligible participants (n=95), adults ages 55 to 89 years old, were randomized three-to-two to treatment with AMX0035, one sachet (each containing one gram of TURSO and three grams of PB) given twice-daily over 24 weeks, or matching placebo.

The primary investigator for the PEGASUS trial, Dr. Steven Arnold, presented topline results from the PEGASUS trial at the Clinical Trials on Alzheimer’s Disease conference, or CTAD, which was held during the fourth quarter of 2021. Based on these topline results, AMX0035 was generally well-tolerated with approximately 80% of patients completing dosing in the trial in the AMX0035 arm. Safety results are depicted in the figure below. As in the CENTAUR trial, a higher percentage of patients in the AMX0035 arm had gastrointestinal adverse events. However, no SAEs were attributed to AMX0035 in the PEGASUS trial.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/7526cb9cde9c53dd5402524459694a8d-img88388660_7.jpg 

The 6-month trial was not powered to evaluate differences between the AMX0035 and placebo arms in cognition, function or imaging.

The primary endpoint of the trial was to compare the safety and tolerability of a fixed-dose combination of AMX0035 versus placebo in subjects with MCI (high or intermediate likelihood due to AD) or dementia due to AD over a 24-week treatment period.

The secondary endpoints of the trial were to:

determine the effects of AMX0035 treatment on whole brain and regional brain atrophy, as assessed by volumetric MRI;
assess the impact of AMX0035 treatment on clinical symptoms as measured by the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale, or ADAS-Cog, the Dementia Severity Rating Scale, or DSRS, and the FAQ;
assess the effect of AMX0035 treatment on measures of neuropsychiatric symptoms, as assessed by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire; and
measure the effects of AMX0035 treatment on functional MRI measures including connectivity with resting state Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent imaging.

Additionally, the trial evaluated differences between the AMX0035 and placebo arms as measured by GST, a newly developed composite outcome of cognitive, functional, and imaging measures named the Global Statistical Test, or GST, over the 24-week treatment period. The GST is a combination of three change-from-baseline to end-of-study endpoints: Cognition (Modified Alzheimer’s Disease Composite Score, or MADCOMS), Function (Functional Activities Questionnaire, or FAQ) and Total Hippocampal Brain Volume (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, or MRI). The GST is calculated for each subject as a mean score across the above three component endpoints for each subject in the trial. This mean score was then analyzed as an efficacy variable.

Finally, the exploratory objectives of the trial were to measure the effect of AMX0035 treatment on biochemical markers of amyloid-ß1-42, amyloid-ß1-40, total tau (t-tau), tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (ptau 181), neuronal injury markers, mitochondrial redox and function markers, and neuroinflammation, as assessed in cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, from all volunteers.

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While functional MRI analyses remain ongoing, no significant differences between dosing groups were observed for any efficacy endpoints in this trial (p>0.05). Key efficacy results are included in the figure below:

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/7526cb9cde9c53dd5402524459694a8d-img88388660_8.jpg 

a Hippocampal volume component is based on standard ADNI MRI algorithm but was also assessed via additional MRI algorithms included in the Statistical Analysis Plan and yielded similar findings.

 

https://cdn.kscope.io/7526cb9cde9c53dd5402524459694a8d-img88388660_9.jpg 

Significant impacts on multiple biomarkers of interest in AD were observed in the trial. In CSF, the AMX0035-group showed significant reductions of tau protein 181 (p<0.001) and phosphorylated tau protein (p<0.001) compared with the placebo group, modulation of the amyloid beta 42/40 ratio (p<0.05) and increase of 8-hydroxy-2’ -deoxyguanosine, (p<0.01). These topline results from the PEGASUS trial are still subject to further audit and verification procedures and additional biomarker results are not yet available.

We believe the biomarker and imaging outcomes from the trial have substantially improved and will continue to inform our knowledge of the impact of AMX0035 on the neurodegenerative pathways relevant to the progression of AD, which have been and will be informative as we continue clinical development of AMX0035 in AD and other potential indications. We believe these insights will help us to examine any effects of AMX0035 on AD’s progression, which could inform future work in AD as well as clinical trial design for other indications. We will continue to evaluate these data and discuss the results of the PEGASUS trial with scientific advisors as we consider potential next steps for the development of AMX0035 for the treatment of AD within our clinical development strategy.

Clinical Development of AMX0035 for Wolfram Syndrome

Wolfram syndrome is a rare, life-threatening disease, with symptoms usually starting at an early age. Wolfram syndrome is thought to be caused by variants in the Wolfram syndrome WFS1 gene, or WFS1, and, in a small fraction of patients, pathogenic variants in the CDGSH iron sulfur domain protein 2 CISD2 gene, or CISD2. Wolfram syndrome results in deafness, blindness, ataxia, neurodegeneration and ultimately death. There are currently no drugs approved for Wolfram syndrome.

Wolfram syndrome appears to be a disease of ER stress. WFS1 encodes and produces the vital wolframin protein, which appears to be involved in ER regulatory processes. WFS1 deficiency leads to chronic ER stress and the UPR. WFS1 also negatively regulates activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), a UPR molecule, resulting in cell death. Furthermore, a

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recent study suggested that WFS1 impacts mitochondrial function by transporting Ca2+ from the ER to the mitochondria through the MAM.

AMX0035 targets pathways central to Wolfram syndrome, including the UPR, and has shown beneficial effects in a variety of models of Wolfram syndrome, including cellular models and patient-derived cell line models. For example, to test the potential effects of AMX0035 in the modulation of ER stress in the context of Wolfram syndrome, the effects of PB, TURSO and AMX0035 were tested in an in vitro model of wild-type and WFS1-deficient pancreatic beta cell lines. In these cells, when compared with the control group, AMX0035 was able to significantly reduce the level of apoptotic cell death in WFS1-deficient pancreatic beta cell lines as measured by normalized caspase 3/7 activity (p less than 0.05).

Additionally, a combination of PB and TURSO was studied in vitro in human patient-derived neural progenitor cells harboring mutations in WFS1, which cause Wolfram Syndrome. Both PB and TURSO, when applied alone, were observed to inhibit cell death in each of three different human cell lines as compared to control conditions, and the application of PB and TURSO in combination was observed to result in lower levels of normalized caspase 3/7 activity in patient-derived Wolfram syndrome cell lines differentiated to produce patient-derived neural progenitor cells, as compared to either the control or treatment with PB or TURSO alone.

For these reasons, we believe AMX0035 is a promising clinical candidate for Wolfram syndrome and we are planning to pursue a clinical trial in this disease.

Patient Advocacy

The patient advocacy landscapes for ALS, AD and other neurodegenerative diseases are large, and encompass groups at the international, multiregional and country-specific level. We have built strong medical and commercial relationships at the international level, with our current emphasis being on ALS advocacy groups in Canada, the United States and Europe. We plan to engage country-specific groups in Europe based on clinical trial results, as well as our medical and commercial priorities.

Working with key advocacy groups is critical to our mission, as patients are at the center of everything we do. This starts with transparent communication and awareness about our science, data and development plans. We seek to ensure that these advocacy groups are informed and able to answer questions from their members about PB, TURSO and AMX0035.

We engaged with patient advocacy groups in the United States and Europe for feedback on the design of our ongoing global Phase 3 PHOENIX trial of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, which is emblematic of the partnerships we are building with the community. In addition, we treat patient advocacy groups as important stakeholders as we address access to AMX0035 outside ongoing clinical trials, such as expanded access and compassionate use programs, including our recently launched United States expanded access program that the FDA has authorized for people with ALS meeting certain eligibility criteria. We have sought and will continue to seek guidance and insights from as many patient advocacy groups as possible and have plans in place to engage groups on an ongoing basis. These groups have also reviewed messaging and press releases from the company to ensure they take into account the patient voice.

Commercialization

We believe the global commercial opportunity for AMX0035 in ALS is driven by its potential to be the first and only treatment for ALS that provides a combination of longer retention of function, improved survival, a generally well-tolerated side effect profile and convenient oral administration. AMX0035 has been shown to have a significant impact on clinically meaningful endpoints, including lengthening time to first hospitalization and permanent ventilation in ALS patients. AMX0035 is also being considered for other neurodegenerative disorders.

ALS is a rare disease, but public sources estimate that ALS affects at least 200,000 people worldwide, with a prevalence in the United States of more than 29,000 ALS patients. More than 30,000 ALS patients are estimated to be living with ALS in Europe (European Union and United Kingdom), and approximately 3,000 ALS patients are estimated to be living with ALS in Canada. In the United States, ALS is treated by neurologists at certified ALS Centers or by other neurologists. In Canada and in Europe, most ALS patients are treated at ALS Centers. The vast majority of people with ALS (over 90%) have sporadic disease, showing no clear family history. Most people who develop ALS are between the ages of 40 and 70, with a median age of 55 at the time of diagnosis. However, cases of the disease do occur in people in their twenties and thirties. People with ALS spend approximately one-third of their disease course searching for a diagnosis and,

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once diagnosed, there are few approved therapies available. ALS is a relentlessly progressive and highly heterogenous disease that arises from multiple mechanistic underpinnings, leading patients to experience variable onset, persistent progression, and shortened survival. The disease remains universally fatal with median survival of less than three years from symptom onset and less than two years from diagnosis.

We have conducted market research with physicians, patients, caregivers, nurses, and payors in the United States, Western Europe and Canada to understand the unmet need and potential of AMX0035 in ALS. Clinicians universally report dissatisfaction with currently approved therapies and state the need for additional options for their ALS patients. When shown a target product profile for AMX0035, the majority of ALS specialists and neurologists with whom we spoke are open to utilizing it in early-to-mid-stage patients, with some also stating the potential for use in late-stage patients.

We submitted an NDS for AMX0035 in ALS with Health Canada in the second quarter of 2021 which was accepted for review in the third quarter of 2021, based on the clinical data from the CENTAUR trial and feedback from Health Canada, an NDA to the FDA in the fourth quarter of 2021, which was accepted for priority review in the same quarter, and an MAA in Europe in the first quarter of 2022, which was validated in the same quarter. The Prescription Drug User Fee Act date, the target date by which the FDA intends to complete its review and take action on the NDA for AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, is June 29, 2022. We also plan to discuss AMX0035 with other health authorities around the world to determine the most appropriate path forward in their respective territories. We also initiated our ongoing Phase 3 PHOENIX trial in the fourth quarter of 2021 to further support the safety and efficacy of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS and our global regulatory efforts.

Our pre-launch activities include building awareness of and education regarding the disease severity and pathophysiology of ALS, increasing understanding of the clinical impact of a change in a patient’s ALSFRS-R score, and building general awareness of our company through active participation in key neurology conferences, patient meetings, partnerships with patient advocacy groups, targeted omnichannel initiatives and payor education in each of the key territories.

If AMX0035 is approved, our initial plans are to build out our commercial operations in Canada, the United States and Europe. There are 175 ALS Association certified, recognized, or affiliated centers in the United States, and 17 Canadian ALS Research Network Clinics in Canada. We plan to target these centers with a specialty key account management team. In the major EU countries, the majority of ALS patients initiate treatment in 20 or less ALS Centers of Reference per country, and we plan to target these centers in priority. We will continue to evaluate market entry opportunities beyond these geographies either on our own or with a partner.

Competition

Overview

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are characterized by rapid technological advancement, significant competition and an emphasis on proprietary products. We face potential competition from many different sources, including major and specialty pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic research institutions, governmental agencies and public and private research institutions. Any product candidates that we successfully develop and commercialize, including AMX0035, may compete with current therapies and new therapies that may become available in the future. We believe that the key competitive factors affecting the success of any of our product candidates will include efficacy, safety profile, dosing, cost, effectiveness of promotional support and intellectual property protection.

Many of our competitors, either alone or with their collaboration partners, have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, preclinical testing, clinical trials, manufacturing, and marketing than we do. Future collaborations and mergers and acquisitions may result in further resource concentration among a smaller number of competitors. Our competitors also may obtain FDA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market or make our development more complicated. These competitors may also vie for a similar pool of qualified scientific and management talent, sites and patient populations for clinical trials, as well as for technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs.

AMX0035 for the Treatment of ALS

In the past 30 years, only two product candidates have been approved for the treatment of ALS in the United States and Canada, and only one product candidate has been approved for the treatment of ALS in Europe. These two approved

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drugs, riluzole (marketed under the name Rilutek) and edaravone (marketed under name Radicava in the United States and Radicut in Japan), are often used in combination. We expect that further therapies and drugs which may be approved in the future will also be used in combination with existing drugs, absent incompatibility or other barriers to combination. For example, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma America, Inc., or MTPA, is developing an oral alternative to Radicava. In the first quarter of 2022 the FDA accepted MTPA’s application for priority review of its oral alternative to Radicava, with a PDUFA date of May 12, 2022.

There are currently no approved treatments for ALS which show both a functional and survival benefit for ALS patients. Patients with ALS are commonly treated with riluzole and edaravone, which are palliative in nature. We believe that these two drugs will not directly compete with AMX0035, if approved, as we believe that successful treatment will likely require concurrent targeting of multiple key neuron death pathways. However, we are aware of several product candidates in clinical development that may compete with AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, if approved, including product candidates being developed by Biogen, Biohaven, Apellis, and UCB. To date, we believe none of the above product candidates has shown statistically significant clinical results on prespecified outcomes in any prior trials. We anticipate that ALS will continue to be an area of research in the healthcare sector and that drug candidates will continue to be developed and studied for treatment of the disease.

While we anticipate the general practice in ALS will continue to be the combination of approved agents, our commercial potential could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient or are less expensive than products that we may develop. In addition, we are aware of one ongoing clinical study in Europe which is evaluating the effects on ALS of TURSO, one of the two components in AMX0035. The outcome of this study could have an impact on the commercial potential of AMX0035.

A large number of trials and studies are ongoing in the many additional neurodegenerative diseases which we are evaluating for future clinical work for AMX0035 including AD, Wolfram syndrome, Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, Multi-System Atrophy, primary lateral sclerosis, ischemic stroke, MS, Friedreich’s ataxia, Leigh’s syndrome and Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy. Some of these diseases also have therapies approved which impact disease progression. The competitive landscape in these diseases will affect the potential opportunity for AMX0035.

Supply and Manufacturing

Currently, we do not have the infrastructure nor internal capability to manufacture AMX0035 for use in clinical development, and if approved, commercialization. We rely, and expect to continue to rely for the foreseeable future, on third-party contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, for the production of AMX0035 in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Process, or cGMP, requirements, for use in clinical trials and our United States expanded access program under the guidance of members of our organization. For AMX0035, we utilize two active pharmaceutical ingredients, or APIs, PB and TURSO, which are manufactured and released to us from third-party manufacturers. We have long term, single-source supply agreements in place for these APIs, including authorization to reference the relevant drug master files with these vendors. We have single-source arrangements for the manufacturing and packaging of bulk drug at established CMOs for our clinical trials, and we expect that these CMOs will supply commercial product if AMX0035 is approved. We manufacture AMX0035 bulk drug at Patheon Inc., or Patheon, a subsidiary of Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., located in Whitby, Canada. We have scaled-up our third-party manufacturing capabilities in a manner that we believe will support commercial demand for AMX0035, if approved, and we have entered into agreements covering the manufacture of AMX0035 through 2025. Following manufacturing, bulk drug is then sent to PCI Pharma Services in Rockford, IL, for primary and secondary packaging. As we look to markets outside of the United States, we plan to add additional manufacturing and distribution sites to support local market demand. In addition, we utilize a risk-based approach to bring on additional manufacturing sites as needed.

We have built a team of pharmaceutical industry technical operations leaders. This team has significant technical, manufacturing, analytical, quality, regulatory, including cGMP, and project management experience to oversee our third-party manufacturers and maintain quality and regulatory compliance. In addition, members of this team have been involved in commercializing and launching rare disease products across the globe. We plan to continue to build our technical operations team as we move towards commercialization.

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Manufacturing Agreement with Patheon

In November 2019, we entered into a master manufacturing services agreement, or the Manufacturing Agreement, with Patheon, pursuant to which Patheon provides cGMP manufacturing, quality control, quality assurance, stability testing, packaging and related services to us. We have executed an initial product agreement under the Manufacturing Agreement, which covers AMX0035. The Manufacturing Agreement has an initial term ending in December 2025, and will automatically renew if there is a product agreement in effect, with the renewal period ending upon the termination of the last product agreement in effect. The product agreement covering AMX0035 has an initial term ending in December 2025 and automatically renews for successive terms of two years, unless either party gives prior notice of its intent not to review.

We may terminate the Manufacturing Agreement or any product agreement: upon 30 days’ prior written notice if any government or regulatory authority permanently prevents us from selling AMX0035 in Canada, the EU or the United States, if approved, or upon 90 days’ prior written notice, if we no longer intend to order manufacturing services due to AMX035’s discontinuance in the market. Patheon may terminate any product agreement under the Manufacturing Agreement upon 30 days’ prior written notice, if we project zero volume for twelve successive months during the term of such product agreement. Additionally, Patheon may terminate the Manufacturing Agreement or any product agreement if payment in full of any overdue, undisputed invoice is not received within 30 days of Patheon’s suspension of manufacturing services for nonpayment or, in certain circumstances, upon nine months’ prior written notice if we assign any rights under the Manufacturing Agreement or a product agreement. In addition, either party may terminate the Manufacturing Agreement or any product agreement for cause, including the other party’s uncured material breach and upon written notice, in the case of the other party’s insolvency or bankruptcy.

Supply Agreement with CU Chemie

In October 2019, we entered into a supply agreement with CU Chemie Uetikon, GmbH, or CU Chemie, a division of the SEQENS group, pursuant to which CU Chemie agreed to supply to us, on a non-exclusive basis, bulk drug substance of PB, for use in the manufacture of AMX0035. The agreement has an initial term of five years and will automatically renew for successive terms of two years, unless earlier terminated. After the expiration of the initial term, either party may terminate the agreement for convenience upon three months’ prior written notice. Additionally, either party may terminate the agreement in the case of the other party’s uncured material breach or upon the insolvency or bankruptcy of the other party.

Supply Agreement with ICE

In December 2019, we entered into a supply agreement with Prodotti Chimici e Alimentari S.p.A. (now ICE S.p.A., or ICE), as amended in July 2021, pursuant to which ICE agreed to supply to us, on a non-exclusive basis, bulk drug substance of TURSO, which we use in the manufacture of AMX0035. The agreement has an initial term of five years and will automatically renew for successive terms of five years, unless earlier terminated. ICE may terminate the agreement upon three months written notice. Additionally, either party may terminate the agreement in the case of the other party’s insolvency or bankruptcy, or in case of the other party’s uncured breach.

Intellectual Property

Intellectual property is of vital importance in our field and to pharmaceuticals generally. Our commercial success depends in part on our ability to obtain intellectual property that protects AMX0035 and its uses, and any future product candidates. We seek to protect and enhance proprietary technology, inventions and improvements that are commercially important to the development of our business and AMX0035, in particular, by seeking, maintaining and defending U.S. and foreign patent rights.

We are actively building our intellectual property portfolio in our therapeutic area, including around AMX0035. Our current patent portfolio as of the date of this filling includes three patent families. In those three families, we currently own a total of 79 issued patents and pending patent applications directed to our technologies, including AMX0035. Currently, our patent portfolio includes four issued U.S. patents, 47 issued foreign patents, 14 pending U.S. patent applications and 14 pending foreign patent applications. Our issued patents and pending applications cover the relative amounts of a phenylbutyrate compound and a bile acid (such as TUDCA) and some of our issued and pending claims cover the specific ratio of those two drugs.

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Our earliest in time patent family relates to compositions of a bile acid and a phenylbutyrate compound (including TURSO and 4-PBA) and methods of treating neurodegenerative disease, and its associated causes at a cellular level, using those compositions. This family includes four issued U.S. patents and 47 issued foreign patents (including rights in countries in which our issued European patent was validated). The foreign jurisdictions in which we have been issued patents include Albania, Austria, Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Belgium, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, European Union, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Latvia, Macao, Macedonia, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Serbia, Slovenia, Slovakia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and United Kingdom. We also have patent applications pending in Australia, Canada, China, European Union, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, and the United States. In this family, we have composition of matter claims issued in the United States (U.S. Patent No. 11,071,742, which was issued on July 27, 2021) and Australia, and pending in applications filed in China and Hong Kong. These issued patents and others that issue from this family may first begin to expire as early as December 2033.

Our second patent family is directed to specific compositions of a phenylbutyrate compound and a bile acid (including TURSO and 4-PBA) and methods of manufacturing those compositions. We have patent applications pending in this family in the United States, Argentina and Taiwan, as well as a Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) application. In this family, we have composition of matter claims pending in applications filed in the United States, Argentina, and Taiwan. Although no patents have yet issued from this family, we expect the term on patents issuing from this family to extend until at least July 2040.

Our third patent family is directed to methods of treating particular symptoms of ALS and/or reducing the associated adverse events with combinations of a phenylbutyrate compound and a bile acid (including TURSO and 4-PBA). We have patent applications pending in this family in the United States and Taiwan, as well as a Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) application. Currently, we do not have any composition of matter claims pending in this family. Although no patents have yet issued from this family, we expect the term on patents issuing from this family to extend until at least August 2040.

We cannot be sure that patents will be granted with respect to any of our pending patent applications nor with respect to any patent applications that may be filed by us in the future. Further, we cannot be sure that any of our existing patents or any patents that may be granted to us in the future will be commercially useful in protecting our commercial products. Finally, we cannot be sure that our granted patents, and any future patents granted to us, will be found valid and/or enforceable following a litigation or administrative procedure.

In January 2021, Bruschettini S.r.l. and Lederer & Keller Patentanwälte Partnerschaft mbB each filed oppositions at the European Patent Office to our issued European Patent, EP2978419. At a high level, this patent claims various methods of treating neurodegenerative disease (and or the causes or conditions thereof) with a bile acid and a phenylbutyrate compound. The opponents contend that the patent should be revoked in its entirety on various grounds, including for allegedly having an insufficient disclosure and for lack of inventive step. The EPO has issued a preliminary opinion dated October 13, 2021, and a summon to attend oral proceedings (also dated October 13, 2021) that sets a date of June 2, 2022 for the oral proceedings. While we believe that this opposition lacks merit, the Opposition Board could revoke our patent in its entirety or limit the scope of our issued claims.

The term of individual patents depends upon the legal term of the patents in the countries in which they are obtained. In most countries in which we file, the patent term is 20 years from the date of filing of the first non-provisional application to which priority is claimed. In the United States, patent term may be lengthened by patent term adjustment, which compensates a patentee for administrative delays by the United States Patent and Trademark Office in granting a patent, or may be shortened if a patent is terminally disclaimed over an earlier-filed patent. In the United States, the term of a patent that covers an FDA-approved drug may also be eligible for a patent term extension of up to five years under the Hatch-Waxman Act, which is designed to compensate for the patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. The length of the patent term extension is calculated based on the length of time it takes for regulatory review. A patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval and only one patent applicable to an approved drug may be extended. Moreover, a patent can only be extended once, and thus, if a single patent is applicable to multiple products, it can only be extended based on one product. Similar provisions are available in Europe and certain other foreign jurisdictions to extend the term of a patent that covers an approved drug. When possible, depending upon the length of clinical trials and other factors involved in the submission of an NDA, we expect to apply for patent term extensions for patents covering our product candidates and/or their methods of use.

We also rely on trademarks, trade secrets, know-how, continuing technological innovation, confidentiality agreements, and invention assignment agreements to develop and maintain our proprietary position. The confidentiality

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agreements are designed to protect our proprietary information and the invention assignment agreements are designed to grant us ownership of technologies that are developed for us by our employees, consultants, or other third parties. We seek to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of our data and trade secrets by maintaining physical security of our premises and physical and electronic security of our information technology systems. While we have confidence in our agreements and security measures, either may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or independently discovered by competitors.

Our commercial success also depends in part on our ability to operate without infringing on the proprietary rights of others and to prevent others from infringing our proprietary rights. A comprehensive discussion on risks relating to intellectual property is provided in Item 1A of this Annual Report entitled “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.”

We have conducted searches of the patent landscape at certain points and in certain jurisdictions with respect to AMX0035, and based on these searches and our analyses, we have not identified any issued patents that we believe are valid and could be successfully asserted to block our ability to commercialize AMX0035.

European Patent EP3016654, entitled “Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) for Use in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders,” is owned by Bruschettini S.r.l. The patent relates to use of TURSO in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a mammal. An opposition has been filed to the grant of EP3016654 at the European Patent Office (EPO), asking the EPO to revoke EP3016654. The EPO issued a preliminary opinion on November 18, 2019 finding that at least the main claim of EP3016654 lacked novelty. Oral proceedings were held before an Opposition Division of the EPO on June 11, 2021. At the end of the oral proceedings, the Opposition Division announced the decision revoking all claims of EP3016654. A written decision has been issued; however Bruschettini has appealed the decision of the Opposition Division to the Board of Appeal.

Government Regulation

The FDA and comparable regulatory authorities in state and local jurisdictions and in other countries, including Canada and member states of the European Union, or EU, impose requirements upon companies involved in the clinical development, manufacture, marketing and distribution of drugs, such as those we are developing. These agencies and other federal, state and local entities regulate, among other things, the research and development, testing, manufacture, quality control, safety, effectiveness, labeling, storage, record keeping, approval, advertising and promotion, distribution, post-approval monitoring and reporting, sampling and export and import of our product candidates.

U.S. Government Regulation of Drug Products

In the United States, the FDA regulates drugs under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FDCA, and its implementing regulations. The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and the subsequent compliance with applicable federal, state, local and foreign statutes and regulations requires the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Failure to comply with the applicable U.S. requirements at any time during the product development process, approval process or after approval, may subject an applicant to a variety of administrative or judicial sanctions, such as the FDA’s refusal to approve pending New Drug Applications, or NDAs, withdrawal of an approval, imposition of a clinical hold, issuance of warning letters, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, fines, refusals of government contracts, restitution, disgorgement or civil or criminal penalties.

The process required by the FDA before a drug may be marketed in the United States generally involves the following:

Completion of preclinical laboratory tests, animal studies and formulation studies in compliance with the FDA’s good laboratory practice, or GLP, regulations;
Submission to the FDA of an IND application, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin;
Approval by an independent IRB at each clinical site before each trial may be initiated;
Performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with current Good Clinical Practices, or cGCP, requirements to establish the safety and efficacy of the proposed drug product for each indication;

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Submission to the FDA of an NDA, including payment of application user fees;
A determination by the FDA within 60 days of its receipt of an NDA to accept the marketing application for review;
Satisfactory completion of an FDA advisory committee review, if applicable;
Satisfactory completion of an FDA inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the product is produced to assess compliance with current good manufacturing practice, or cGMP, requirements and to assure that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate to preserve the product’s identity, strength, quality and purity;
Satisfactory completion of FDA audits of clinical trial sites to assure compliance with cGCPs and the integrity of the clinical data; and
FDA review and approval of the NDA.

Preclinical Studies

Preclinical studies include laboratory evaluation of product chemistry, toxicity and formulation, as well as in vitro and animal studies to assess potential safety and efficacy. The conduct of preclinical studies is subject to federal regulations and requirements, including good laboratory practice regulations for safety/toxicology studies.

An IND sponsor must submit the results of the preclinical tests, together with manufacturing information, analytical data and any available clinical data or literature and plans for clinical studies, among other things, to the FDA as part of an IND. An IND is a request for authorization from the FDA to administer an investigational product to humans and must become effective before human clinical trials may begin. Some preclinical testing, such as animal tests of reproductive adverse events and carcinogenicity, may continue even after the IND is submitted. An IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless before that time the FDA raises concerns or questions related to one or more proposed clinical trials and places the clinical trial on a clinical hold. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before the clinical trial can begin. As a result, submission of an IND may not result in the FDA allowing clinical trials to initiate.

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational new drug to human subjects under the supervision of qualified investigators in accordance with cGCP requirements, which include the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent in writing for their participation in any clinical trial. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the trial, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety, and the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated. A protocol for each clinical trial and any subsequent protocol amendments must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. In addition, an IRB representing each institution participating in the clinical trial must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial before it is initiated at that institution. The IRB also must review and approve the informed consent form that must be provided to each clinical trial subject or his or her legal representative, and must monitor the clinical trial until completion.

Information about certain clinical trials must be submitted within specific timeframes to the National Institutes of Health, or NIH, for public dissemination on their www.clinicaltrials.gov website. Information related to the product, patient population, phase of investigation, study sites and investigators and other aspects of the clinical trial is made public as part of the registration of the clinical trial. Although sponsors are obligated to disclose the results of their clinical trials after completion, disclosure of the results can be delayed in some cases for up to two years after the date of completion of the trial. Failure to timely register a covered clinical study or to submit study results as provided for in the law can give rise to civil monetary penalties and also prevent the non-compliant party from receiving future grant funds from the federal government. The NIH’s Final Rule on ClinicalTrials.gov registration and reporting requirements became effective in 2017, and both the NIH and FDA recently signaled the government’s willingness to begin enforcing those requirements against non-compliant clinical trial sponsors.

Human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases, which may overlap or be combined:

Phase 1: The drug is initially introduced into healthy human subjects or patients with the target disease or condition and tested for safety, dosage tolerance, absorption, metabolism, distribution, excretion and, if possible, to gain an early indication of its effectiveness.

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Phase 2: The drug is administered to a limited patient population to identify possible adverse effects and safety risks, to preliminarily evaluate the efficacy of the product for specific targeted diseases and to determine dosage tolerance and optimal dosage.
Phase 3: The drug is administered to an expanded patient population, generally at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites, in well-controlled clinical trials to generate enough data to statistically evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product for approval, to establish the overall risk-benefit profile of the product, and to provide adequate information for the labeling of the product.

Post-approval trials, sometimes referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials, may be conducted after initial marketing approval. These trials are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication. In certain instances, the FDA may mandate the performance of Phase 4 clinical trials as a condition of approval on an NDA.

Progress reports detailing the results of the clinical trials must be submitted at least annually to the FDA and more frequently if SAEs occur. Written IND safety reports must be submitted to the FDA and investigators for serious and unexpected suspected adverse events, findings from other studies or animal or in vitro testing that suggest a significant risk for human subjects and any clinically important increase in the rate of a serious suspected adverse reaction over that listed in the protocol or investigator brochure. The sponsor must submit an IND safety report within 15 calendar days after the sponsor determines that the information qualifies for reporting. The sponsor also must notify the FDA of any unexpected fatal or life-threatening suspected adverse reaction within seven calendar days after the sponsor’s initial receipt of the information.

Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 trials may not be completed successfully within any specified period, or at all. Furthermore, the FDA or the sponsor may suspend or terminate a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the drug has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients. Additionally, some clinical trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board or committee. This group provides authorization for whether a trial may move forward at designated check points based on access to certain data from the trial.

Concurrent with clinical trials, companies usually complete additional animal studies and also must develop additional information about the chemistry and physical characteristics of the drug as well as finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of product and, among other things, companies must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality and purity of the final product. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the drug does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life.

Expanded Access to an Investigational Drug for Treatment Use

Expanded access, sometimes called “compassionate use,” is the use of investigational products outside of clinical trials to treat patients with serious or immediately life-threatening diseases or conditions when there are no comparable or satisfactory alternative treatment options. The rules and regulations related to expanded access are intended to improve access to investigational products for patients who may benefit from investigational therapies. FDA regulations allow access to investigational products under an IND by the company or the treating physician for treatment purposes on a case-by-case basis for: individual patients (single-patient IND applications for treatment in emergency settings and non-emergency settings); intermediate-size patient populations; and larger populations for use of the investigational product under a treatment protocol or treatment IND application.

When considering an IND application for expanded access to an investigational product with the purpose of treating a patient or a group of patients, the sponsor and treating physicians or investigators will determine suitability when all of the following criteria apply: patient(s) have a serious or immediately life-threatening disease or condition, and there is no comparable or satisfactory alternative therapy to diagnose, monitor, or treat the disease or condition; the potential patient benefit justifies the potential risks of the treatment and the potential risks are not unreasonable in the context or condition to be treated; and the expanded use of the investigational drug for the requested treatment will not interfere with initiation,

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conduct, or completion of clinical investigations that could support marketing approval of the product or otherwise compromise the potential development of the product.

There is no obligation for a sponsor to make its drug products available for expanded access; however, as required by the 21st Century Cures Act, or Cures Act, passed in 2016, if a sponsor has a policy regarding how it responds to expanded access requests, it must make that policy publicly available. Sponsors are required to make such policies publicly available upon the earlier of initiation of a Phase 2 or Phase 3 trial; or 15 days after the investigational drug or biologic receives designation as a breakthrough therapy, fast track product, or regenerative medicine advanced therapy.

In addition, on May 30, 2018, the Right to Try Act was signed into law. The law, among other things, provides a federal framework for certain patients to access certain investigational products that have completed a Phase 1 clinical trial and that are undergoing investigation for FDA approval. Under certain circumstances, eligible patients can seek treatment without enrolling in clinical trials and without obtaining FDA permission under FDA expanded access program. There is no obligation for a manufacturer to make its investigational products available to eligible patients as a result of the Right to Try Act.

Combination Rule for Fixed-Dose Combination Products

Under the combination rule, the FDA may not file or approve an NDA for a fixed-dose combination product unless each component of a proposed drug product is shown to make a contribution to the claimed effects and the dosage of each component (amount, frequency, duration) is safe and effective for the intended population. To satisfy these requirements, the FDA typically requires a clinical factorial study, designed to assess the effects attributable to each drug in the combination product. This is particularly true when the ingredients are directed at the same sign or symptom of the disease or condition.

The FDA has accepted a variety of approaches to satisfy the combination rule. In December 2015, the FDA proposed regulations that would allow the agency to waive the requirements of the combination rule for certain drug products under particular circumstances. The FDA has not, to date, finalized these regulations, but the FDA has stated that factorial studies may be unethical (e.g., omitting a drug known to improve survival) or impractical (there may be too many components to conduct a factorial study, meaning the trial cannot be conducted). The FDA has also stated that it may be possible to use other types of clinical and nonclinical data and mechanistic information available to demonstrate the contributions of the individual active ingredients to the effect of the combination.

Similar requirements may be imposed on us by the EMA in the EU and comparable regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions. While no similar combination rule formally exists in Canada, Health Canada may consider the contributions of each component in a combination product in connection with review of the NDS.

NDA Submission and Marketing Approval

Assuming successful completion of the required clinical testing, the results of the preclinical and clinical studies, together with detailed information relating to the product’s chemistry, manufacture, controls and proposed labeling, among other things, are submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA requesting approval to market the product for one or more indications. In most cases, the submission of an NDA is subject to a substantial application user fee. The FDA will initially review an NDA for completeness before it accepts it for “filing.” Under the FDA’s procedures, the agency has 60 days from its receipt of the NDA to determine whether the application will be accepted for filing based on the agency’s threshold determination that the application is sufficiently complete to permit substantive review. Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, or PDUFA, guidelines that are currently in effect, the FDA has a goal of ten months from the date of “filing” of a standard NDA, for a new molecular entity to review and act on the submission, and six months from the filing date of a new molecular entity NDA with priority review. Accordingly, this review process typically takes 12 months and eight months, respectively from the date the NDA is submitted to the FDA. The FDA does not always meet its PDUFA goal dates for standard or priority NDAs, and the review process is often extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification. The FDA reviews an NDA to determine, among other things, whether the drug is safe and effective and whether the facility in which it is manufactured, processed, packaged or held meets standards designed to assure the product’s continued safety, quality and purity.

In addition, under the Pediatric Research Equity Act of 2003, or PREA, as amended, certain NDAs or supplements to an NDA must contain data that are adequate to assess the safety and effectiveness of the drug for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations, and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the

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product is safe and effective. The FDA may, on its own initiative or at the request of the applicant, grant deferrals for submission of some or all pediatric data until after approval of the product for use in adults, or full or partial waivers from the pediatric data requirements. A sponsor who is planning to submit a marketing application for a drug that includes a new active ingredient, new indication, new dosage form, new dosing regimen or new route of administration must submit an initial Pediatric Study Plan, or PSP, within 60 days of an end-of-Phase 2 meeting or, if there is no such meeting, as early as practicable before initiation of the Phase 3 or Phase 2/3 study. The initial PSP must include an outline of the pediatric study or studies that the sponsor plans to conduct, including study objectives and design, age groups, relevant endpoints and statistical approach, or a justification for not including such detailed information, and any request for a deferral of pediatric assessments or a full or partial waiver of the requirement to provide data from pediatric studies along with supporting information. The FDA and the sponsor must reach an agreement on the PSP. A sponsor can submit amendments to an agreed-upon initial PSP at any time if changes to the pediatric plan need to be considered based on data collected from preclinical studies, early phase clinical trials and/or other clinical development programs.

The FDA conducts a preliminary review of all NDAs within the first 60 days after submission, before accepting them for filing, to determine whether they are sufficiently complete to permit substantive review. The FDA may request additional information rather than accept an NDA for filing. In this event, the application must be resubmitted with the additional information. The resubmitted application is also subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing. Once the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth substantive review. The FDA reviews an NDA to determine, among other things, whether the drug is safe and effective and whether the facility in which it is manufactured, processed, packaged or held meets standards designed to assure the product’s continued safety, quality and purity.

The FDA may refer an application for a novel drug or a drug that presents difficult questions of safety or efficacy to an advisory committee. An advisory committee is a panel of independent experts, including clinicians and other scientific experts, which reviews, evaluates and provides a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations carefully when making decisions.

The FDA also may require the submission of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, or REMS, if it determines that a REMS is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the drug outweigh its risks and to assure the safe use of the drug. A REMS may include one or more elements, including medication guides, physician communication plans, patient package insert and/or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries or other risk minimization tools. The FDA determines the requirement for a REMS, as well as the specific REMS provisions, on a case-by-case basis. If the FDA concludes a REMS is needed, the sponsor of the NDA must submit a proposed REMS. The FDA will not approve the NDA without a REMS, if required.

Before approving an NDA, the FDA typically will inspect the facility or facilities where the product is manufactured. The FDA will not approve an application unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP requirements and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. Additionally, before approving an NDA, the FDA may inspect one or more clinical trial sites to assure compliance with cGCP requirements.

After evaluating the NDA and all related information, including the advisory committee recommendation, if any, and inspection reports regarding the manufacturing facilities and clinical trial sites, the FDA may issue an approval letter, or, in some cases, a Complete Response Letter. A Complete Response Letter generally contains a statement of specific conditions that must be met in order to secure final approval of the NDA and may require additional clinical or preclinical testing in order for FDA to reconsider the application. If a Complete Response Letter is issued, the applicant may either resubmit the NDA, addressing all of the deficiencies identified in the letter, or withdraw the application. Even with submission of this additional information, the FDA ultimately may decide that the application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval. If and when those conditions have been met to the FDA’s satisfaction, the FDA will typically issue an approval letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with specific prescribing information for specific indications.

Even if the FDA approves a product, it may limit the approved indications for use of the product, require that contraindications, warnings or precautions be included in the product labeling, require that post-approval studies, including Phase 4 clinical trials, be conducted to further assess a drug’s safety after approval, require testing and surveillance programs to monitor the product after commercialization, or impose other conditions, including distribution and use restrictions or other risk management mechanisms under a REMS, which can materially affect the potential market and profitability of the product. The FDA may prevent or limit further marketing of a product based on the results of post-marketing studies or

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surveillance programs. After approval, some types of changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications, manufacturing changes, and additional labeling claims, are subject to further testing requirements and FDA review and approval.

Orphan Drug Designation and Exclusivity

Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant orphan designation to a drug product intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally a disease or condition that affects either (i) fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or (ii) more than 200,000 individuals in the United States and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making the product available in the United States for this type of disease or condition will be recovered from sales of the product. A company must request orphan drug designation before submitting an NDA. If the request is granted, the FDA will disclose the identity of the therapeutic agent and its potential use. Orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in or shorten the duration of the regulatory review and approval process.

If a product with orphan status receives the first FDA approval for the disease or condition for which it has such designation or for a select indication or use within the rare disease or condition for which it was designated, the product is entitled to orphan product exclusivity. Orphan product exclusivity means that the FDA may not approve any other applications to market the same product for the same indication for seven years, except in certain limited circumstances. If a drug designated as an orphan drug ultimately receives marketing approval for an indication broader than what it was designated for, it may not be entitled to exclusivity. Orphan exclusivity will not bar approval of another product under certain circumstances, including if a subsequent product with the same active ingredient for the same indication is shown to be clinically superior to the approved product on the basis of greater efficacy or safety, or providing a major contribution to patient care, or if the company with orphan drug exclusivity is not able to meet market demand. Further, the FDA may approve more than one product for the same orphan indication or disease as long as the products contain different active ingredients. Moreover, competitors may receive approval of different products for the indication for which the orphan product has exclusivity or obtain approval for the same product but for a different indication for which the orphan drug has exclusivity. U.S. lawmakers have also recently raised the possibility that regulatory or legislative changes might need to be made to the Orphan Drug Act to foster competition. This includes the introduction of legislation that, if adopted into law, would require us to demonstrate to the FDA that AMX0035 would be economically unviable when facing competition to maintain our exclusivity.

Expedited Development and Priority Review Programs

The FDA maintains several programs intended to facilitate and expedite development and review of new drugs to address unmet medical needs in the treatment of serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions. These programs include Fast Track designation, Breakthrough Therapy designation, Priority Review and Accelerated Approval, and the purpose of these programs is to either expedite the development or review of important new drugs to get them to patients earlier than under standard FDA development and review procedures.

The FDA has a FastTrack program that is intended to expedite or facilitate the process for reviewing new drugs that meet certain criteria. Specifically, new drugs are eligible for Fast Track designation if they are intended to treat a serious or life threatening condition and preclinical or clinical data demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs for the condition. Fast Track designation applies to both the product and the specific indication for which it is being studied. The sponsor can request the FDA to designate the product for Fast Track status any time before receiving NDA approval, but ideally no later than the pre-NDA meeting. Fast Track designation provides increased opportunities for sponsor interactions with the FDA during preclinical and clinical development, in addition to the potential for rolling review once a marketing application is filed, meaning that the agency may review portions of the marketing application before the sponsor submits the complete application, as well as priority review, discussed below.

Additionally, a drug may be eligible for designation as a breakthrough therapy if the product is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs or biologics, to treat a serious or life-threatening condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the product may demonstrate substantial improvement over currently approved therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints. The benefits of Breakthrough Therapy designation include the same benefits as Fast Track designation, plus intensive guidance from the FDA to ensure an efficient drug development program. A product may also be eligible for priority review if it treats a serious or life-threatening condition and, if approved, would provide a significant improvement in safety and effectiveness compared to available therapies. The FDA determines at the time that the marketing application is submitted, on a case-by-case basis, whether the proposed drug represents a significant improvement

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in treatment, prevention or diagnosis of disease when compared with other available therapies. The FDA will attempt to direct additional resources to the evaluation of an application for a new drug designated for priority review in an effort to facilitate the review and to shorten the FDA’s goal for taking action on an NDA for a new molecular entity from ten months to six months from the date of filing.

A product may also be eligible for accelerated approval if it treats a serious or life-threatening disease or condition, generally provides a meaningful advantage over available therapies and demonstrates an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit, or on a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than irreversible morbidity or mortality, or IMM, that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on IMM or other clinical benefit. As a condition of accelerated approval, the FDA requires that a sponsor perform adequate and well-controlled post-marketing clinical trials. If the FDA concludes that a drug shown to be effective can be safely used only if distribution or use is restricted, it will require such post-marketing restrictions, as it deems necessary to assure safe use of the product.

Even if a product qualifies for one or more of these programs, the FDA may later decide that the product no longer meets the conditions for qualification or decide that the time period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened. Fast Track designation, Breakthrough Therapy designation and Priority Review designation do not change the standards for approval, but may expedite the development or review process. Drugs granted accelerated approval also must meet the same statutory standards for safety and effectiveness as those granted traditional approval.

U.S. Non-Patent Exclusivity

Data exclusivity provisions under the FDCA can delay the submission or the approval of certain follow-on applications. The FDCA provides a five-year period of data exclusivity within the United States to the first applicant to gain approval of an NDA for a new chemical entity. A drug is a new chemical entity if the FDA has not previously approved any other new drug containing the same active moiety, which is the molecule or ion responsible for the action of the drug substance. During the exclusivity period, the FDA may not accept for review an Abbreviated New Drug Application, or ANDA, for a generic version of the drug or a 505(b)(2) NDA for another version of such drug where the applicant does not own or have a legal right of reference to all the data required for approval. However, such a follow-on application may be submitted after four years if it contains a certification of patent invalidity or non-infringement.

The FDA has previously taken the position that new chemical entity or NCE exclusivity is not available for fixed-dose combination products if one of the active moieties in the combination product had been previously approved in a drug product. In October 2014, however, the FDA reversed that position when it issued final guidance stating that an application for a fixed-dose combination product will be eligible for 5-year NCE exclusivity if it contains a drug substance with a single, new active moiety, even if the fixed-combination also contains a drug substance with a previously approved active moiety.

The FDCA also provides three years of market exclusivity for an NDA, 505(b)(2) NDA or supplement to an existing NDA if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant are deemed by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application, for example, new indications, dosages or strengths of an existing drug. This three-year exclusivity period covers only the conditions of use associated with the new clinical investigations and does not prohibit the FDA from approving follow-on applications that do not reference the protected clinical data. Five-year and three-year exclusivity will not delay the submission or approval of a full NDA. However, an applicant submitting a full NDA would be required to conduct or obtain a right of reference to all of the preclinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials necessary to demonstrate safety and effectiveness.

Pediatric exclusivity is another type of regulatory market exclusivity in the United States. Pediatric exclusivity, if granted, adds six months to existing regulatory exclusivity periods or listed patents. This six-month exclusivity may be granted based on the voluntary completion of a pediatric trial in accordance with an FDA-issued “Written Request” for such a trial.

Post-approval Requirements

Drugs manufactured or distributed pursuant to FDA approvals are subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA, including, among other things, requirements relating to recordkeeping, periodic reporting, product sampling and distribution, advertising and promotion and reporting of adverse experiences with the product. After approval, most changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications or other labeling claims are subject to prior FDA review and approval. There are continuing, annual user fee requirements for any marketed products.

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The FDA may impose a number of post-approval requirements as a condition of approval of an NDA. For example, the FDA may require post-marketing testing, including Phase 4 clinical trials, and surveillance to further assess and monitor the product’s safety and effectiveness after commercialization.

FDA regulations require that products be manufactured in specific facilities and in accordance with cGMP regulations which require, among other things, quality control and quality assurance, the maintenance of records and documentation and the obligation to investigate and correct any deviations from cGMP. In addition, drug manufacturers and other entities involved in the manufacture and distribution of approved drugs are required to register their establishments with the FDA and state agencies, and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and these state agencies for compliance with cGMP requirements. Manufacturers and other parties involved in the drug supply chain for prescription drug products must also comply with product tracking and tracing requirements and for notifying FDA of counterfeit, diverted, stolen and intentionally adulterated products or products that are otherwise unfit for distribution in the United States. Changes to the manufacturing process are strictly regulated and often require prior FDA approval before being implemented. FDA regulations also require investigation and correction of any deviations from cGMP requirements and impose reporting and documentation requirements upon the sponsor and any third-party manufacturers that the sponsor may decide to use. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money, and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain cGMP compliance.

Once an approval of a drug is granted, the FDA may withdraw the approval if compliance with regulatory requirements and standards is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the market. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in mandatory revisions to the approved labeling to add new safety information; imposition of post-market studies or clinical trials to assess new safety risks; or imposition of distribution or other restrictions under a REMS program. Any of these limitations on approval or marketing could restrict the commercial promotion, distribution, prescription or dispensing of products. Other potential consequences include, among other things:

Restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product, complete withdrawal of the product from the market or product recalls;
Fines, warning letters or holds on post-approval clinical trials;
Refusal of the FDA to approve pending NDAs or supplements to approved NDAs, or suspension or withdrawal of product approvals;
Product seizure or detention, or refusal to permit the import or export of products; and
Injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

The FDA strictly regulates marketing, labeling, advertising and promotion of products that are placed on the market. Drugs may be promoted by a manufacturer and any third parties acting on behalf of a manufacturer only for the approved indications and in a manner consistent with the approved label for the product. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability.

Other U.S. Healthcare Laws

Healthcare providers, physicians, and third-party payors will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of drug products for which we obtain marketing approval. Arrangements with third-party payors, healthcare providers and physicians, in connection with the clinical research, sales, marketing and promotion of products, once approved, and related activities, may expose a pharmaceutical manufacturer to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations. In the United States, these laws include, without limitation, state and federal anti-kickback, false claims, physician transparency, and patient data privacy and security laws and regulations, including but not limited to those described below:

the Anti-Kickback Statute, or AKS, which makes it illegal for any person or entity, including a prescription drug manufacturer (or a party acting on its behalf) to knowingly and willfully solicit, receive, offer or pay any remuneration (including any kickback, bribe, or rebate), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, that is intended to induce or reward, referrals including the purchase, recommendation, order or prescription of a particular drug for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare and

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Medicaid programs. The AKS has been interpreted to apply to arrangements between therapeutic product manufacturers on one hand and prescribers, purchasers, and formulary managers on the other. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation. Further, courts have found that if “one purpose” of remuneration is to induce referrals, the AKS is violated. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the AKS constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal False Claims Act, or FCA;
the federal civil and criminal false claims laws, including the FCA, which can be enforced by private citizens through “qui tam” or “whistleblower” actions, and civil monetary penalty laws, which impose criminal and civil penalties against individuals or entities for, among other things, knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment or approval from Medicare, Medicaid, or other federal health care programs that are false or fraudulent; knowingly making or causing a false statement material to a false or fraudulent claim or an obligation to pay or transmit money or property to the federal government; or knowingly concealing or knowingly and improperly avoiding or decreasing such an obligation. Pharmaceutical and other healthcare companies have been, and continue to be, prosecuted under these laws, among other things, for allegedly providing free product to customers with the expectation that the customers would bill federal programs for the product and for causing false claims to be submitted because of the companies’ marketing of the product for unapproved, off-label, and thus generally non-reimbursable, uses. Similar to the AKS, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of these statutes or specific intent to violate them in order to have committed a violation.
the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which created additional federal criminal statutes that prohibit knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or obtain, by means of false or fraudulent pretenses, representations, or promises, any of the money or property owned by, or under the custody or control of, any healthcare benefit program, regardless of the payor (e.g., public or private) and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up by any trick or device a material fact or making any materially false statements in connection with the delivery of, or payment for, healthcare benefits, items or services relating to healthcare matters. Like the AKS, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or the ACA, amended the intent standard for certain healthcare fraud statutes under HIPAA such that a person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, or HITECH, and their respective implementing regulations, which impose requirements on certain covered healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses as well as their respective business associates that perform services for them that involve the creation, use, receipt, maintenance or disclosure of individually identifiable health information, relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information. HITECH also created four new tiers of civil monetary penalties, amended HIPAA to make civil and criminal penalties directly applicable to business associates, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce HIPAA and seek attorneys’ fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions;
federal government price reporting laws, which require us to calculate and report complex pricing metrics in an accurate and timely manner to government programs;
the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act, created under the ACA, and its implementing regulations, which require manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program to report annually to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, or CMS, under the Open Payments Program, information related to payments or other transfers of value made to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Effective January 1, 2022, these reporting obligations extend to include transfers of value made during the previous year to certain non-physician providers such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners; and
analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state and foreign anti-kickback, false claims, consumer protection and unfair competition laws which may apply to pharmaceutical business practices, including but not limited to, research, distribution, sales and marketing arrangements as well as submitting claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including commercial insurers; state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government that otherwise restricts payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state laws that require drug manufacturers to file reports with states regarding pricing and marketing information, such as the tracking and

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reporting of gifts, compensations and other remuneration and items of value provided to healthcare professionals and entities; state and local laws requiring the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives; and state and foreign laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors available, it is possible that some of a pharmaceutical manufacturer’s business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. Efforts to ensure that business arrangements comply with applicable healthcare laws involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental and enforcement authorities will conclude that a pharmaceutical manufacturer’s business practices do not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law interpreting applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If any such actions are instituted against a pharmaceutical manufacturer, and it is not successful in defending itself or asserting its rights, those actions could have a significant impact on its business, including the imposition of significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, disgorgement, imprisonment, monetary fines, possible exclusion from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs, reporting obligations and oversight if we become subject to integrity and oversight agreements to resolve allegations of non-compliance, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits and future earnings, and curtailment of operations, any of which could adversely affect a pharmaceutical manufacturer’s ability to operate its business and the results of operations. In addition, commercialization of any drug product outside the United States will also likely be subject to foreign equivalents of the healthcare laws mentioned above, among other foreign laws.

In the United States, numerous federal and state laws and regulations, including state data breach notification laws, state and federal health information privacy laws, and federal and state consumer protection laws, govern the collection, use, disclosure, and protection of health-related and other personal information. For example California recently enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act, or CCPA, which creates new individual privacy rights for California consumers (as defined in the law) and places increased privacy and security obligations on entities handling personal data of consumers or households. The CCPA will require covered companies to provide certain disclosures to consumers about its data collection, use and sharing practices, and to provide affected California residents with ways to opt-out of certain sales or transfers of personal information. The CCPA went into effect on January 1, 2020, and the California State Attorney General has submitted various versions of final regulations. The California State Attorney General also now has the authority to commence enforcement actions against violators as of July 1, 2020. Further, a new California privacy law, the California Privacy Rights Act, or CPRA, was passed by California voters on November 3, 2020. The CPRA will create additional obligations with respect to processing and storing personal information that are scheduled to take effect on January 1, 2023 (with certain provisions having retroactive effect to January 1, 2022). We will continue to monitor developments related to the CPRA and anticipate additional costs and expenses associated with CPRA compliance. Other U.S. states also are considering omnibus privacy legislation (with one additional law already passed in Colorado and Virginia) and industry organizations regularly adopt and advocate for new standards in these areas. While the CCPA and CPRA contain an exception for certain activities involving PHI under HIPAA, we cannot yet determine the impact the CCPA, CPRA or other such future laws, regulations and standards may have on our business, as these laws either do not yet apply to us or are not yet in effect.

In the event we decide to conduct clinical trials or continue to enroll subjects in our ongoing or future clinical trials, we may be subject to additional privacy restrictions, under state and federal law or other obligations. We also may become subject to laws in other countries, including the General Data Protection Regulation in Europe.

Current and Future U.S. Healthcare Reform Legislation

Payors, whether domestic or foreign, or governmental or private, are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs and those methods are not always specifically adapted for new technologies such as gene therapy and therapies addressing rare diseases such as those we are developing. In both the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the health care system that could impact our ability to sell our products profitably. In particular, in 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, or collectively, the ACA, was enacted, which, among other things, subjected biologic products to potential competition by lower-cost biosimilars; addressed a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected; increased the minimum Medicaid rebates owed by most manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program; extended the Medicaid Drug Rebate program to utilization of prescriptions of individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations; subjected manufacturers to new annual fees and taxes for certain branded prescription drugs; created a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must agree to

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offer 50% (increased to 70% pursuant to the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, effective as of January 1, 2019) point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D; and provided incentives to programs that increase the federal government’s comparative effectiveness research.

Since its enactment, there have been numerous judicial, administrative, executive, and legislative challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. On June 17, 2021, the Supreme Court dismissed the most recent judicial challenge to the ACA brought by several states without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the ACA. Prior to the Supreme Court’s decision, President Biden issued an Executive Order to initiate a special enrollment period from February 15, 2021 through August 15, 2021 for purposes of obtaining health insurance coverage through the ACA marketplace. The Executive Order also instructed certain governmental agencies to review and reconsider their existing policies and rules that limit access to healthcare, including among others, reexamining Medicaid demonstration projects and waiver programs that include work requirements, and policies that create unnecessary barriers to obtaining access to health insurance coverage through Medicaid or the ACA. It is unclear how other healthcare reform measures of the Biden administrations or other efforts, if any, to challenge repeal or replace the ACA, will impact our business.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the ACA was enacted:


 

On August 2, 2011, the U.S. Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, included aggregate reductions of Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year. These reductions went into effect on April 1, 2013 and, due to subsequent legislative amendments to the statute, will remain in effect through 2030, with the exception of a temporary suspension from May 1, 2020 through March 31, 2022 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Following the temporary suspension, a 1% payment reduction will occur beginning April 1, 2022 through June 30, 2022, and the 2% payment reduction will resume on July 1, 2022.
 
On January 2, 2013, the U.S. American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which, among other things, further reduced Medicare payments to several types of providers.
 
On April 13, 2017, CMS published a final rule that gives states greater flexibility in setting benchmarks for insurers in the individual and small group marketplaces, which may have the effect of relaxing the essential health benefits required under the ACA for plans sold through such marketplaces.
 
On May 30, 2018, the Right to Try Act, was signed into law. The law, among other things, provides a federal framework for certain patients to access certain investigational new drug products that have completed a Phase 1 clinical trial and that are undergoing investigation for FDA approval. Under certain circumstances, eligible patients can seek treatment without enrolling in clinical trials and without obtaining FDA permission under the FDA expanded access program. There is no obligation for a pharmaceutical manufacturer to make its drug products available to eligible patients as a result of the Right to Try Act.
 
On May 23, 2019, CMS published a final rule to allow Medicare Advantage Plans the option of using step therapy for Part B drugs beginning January 1, 2020.
 
On December 20, 2019, former President Trump signed into law the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 1865), which repealed the Cadillac tax, the health insurance provider tax, and the medical device excise tax. It is impossible to determine whether similar taxes could be instated in the future.
 

Additionally, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny in the United States of pharmaceutical pricing practices in light of the rising cost of prescription drugs and biologics. At a federal level, President Biden signed an Executive Order on July 9, 2021 affirming the administration’s policy to (i) support legislative reforms that would lower the prices of prescription drug and biologics, including by allowing Medicare to negotiate drug prices, by imposing inflation caps, and, by supporting the development and market entry of lower-cost generic drugs and biosimilars; and (ii) support the enactment of a

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public health insurance option. Among other things, the Executive Order also directs HHS to provide a report on actions to combat excessive pricing of prescription drugs, enhance the domestic drug supply chain, reduce the price that the Federal government pays for drugs, and address price gouging in the industry; and directs the FDA to work with states and Indian Tribes that propose to develop section 804 Importation Programs in accordance with the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, and the FDA’s implementing regulations. FDA released such implementing regulations on September 24, 2020, which went into effect on November 30, 2020, providing guidance for states to build and submit importation plans for drugs from Canada. On September 25, 2020, CMS stated drugs imported by states under this rule will not be eligible for federal rebates under Section 1927 of the Social Security Act and manufacturers would not report these drugs for “best price” or Average Manufacturer Price purposes. Since these drugs are not considered covered outpatient drugs, CMS further stated it will not publish a National Average Drug Acquisition Cost for these drugs. If implemented, importation of drugs from Canada may materially and adversely affect the price we receive for any of our product candidates. Further, on November 20, 2020 CMS issued an Interim Final Rule implementing the Most Favored Nation, or MFN, Model under which Medicare Part B reimbursement rates would have been be calculated for certain drugs and biologicals based on the lowest price drug manufacturers receive in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries with a similar gross domestic product per capita. However, on December 29, 2021 CMS rescinded the Most Favored Nations rule. Additionally, on November 30, 2020, HHS published a regulation removing safe harbor protection for price reductions from pharmaceutical manufacturers to plan sponsors under Part D, either directly or through pharmacy benefit managers, unless the price reduction is required by law. The rule also creates a new safe harbor for price reductions reflected at the point-of-sale, as well as a safe harbor for certain fixed fee arrangements between pharmacy benefit managers and manufacturers. Pursuant to court order, the removal and addition of the aforementioned safe harbors were delayed and recent legislation imposed a moratorium on implementation of the rule until January 1, 2026. Although a number of these and other proposed measures may require authorization through additional legislation to become effective, and the Biden administration may reverse or otherwise change these measures, both the Biden administration and Congress have indicated that they will continue to seek new legislative measures to control drug costs.

In addition, there have been several changes to the 340B drug pricing program, which imposes ceilings on prices that drug manufacturers can charge for medications sold to certain health care facilities. On December 27, 2018, the District Court for the District of Columbia invalidated a reimbursement formula change under the 340B drug pricing program, and CMS subsequently altered the FYs 2019 and 2018 reimbursement formula on specified covered outpatient drugs (“SCODs”). The court ruled this change was not an “adjustment” which was within the Secretary’s discretion to make but was instead a fundamental change in the reimbursement calculation. However, most recently, on July 31, 2020, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit overturned the district court’s decision and found that the changes were within the Secretary’s authority. On September 14, 2020, the plaintiffs-appellees filed a Petition for Rehearing En Banc (i.e., before the full court), but was denied on October 16, 2020. Plaintiffs-appellees filed a petition for a writ of certiorari at the Supreme Court on February 10, 2021. On Friday July 2, 2021, the Supreme Court granted the petition. It is unclear how these developments could affect covered hospitals who might purchase our future products and affect the rates we may charge such facilities for our approved products in the future, if any.
 

Individual states in the United States have also increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing.

Canadian Review and Approval Process

In Canada, our small molecule product candidates and our research and development activities are primarily regulated by the Food and Drugs Act and the rules and regulations thereunder, which are enforced by Health Canada. Health Canada regulates, among other things, the research, development, testing, approval, manufacture, packaging, labeling, storage, recordkeeping, advertising, promotion, distribution, marketing, post-approval monitoring and import and export of pharmaceutical products. The drug approval process under Canadian laws requires licensing of manufacturing facilities, carefully controlled research and testing of products, government review and approval of experimental results prior to giving approval to sell drug products. Regulators also typically require that rigorous and specific standards such Continuing Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMP, Good Laboratory Practices, or GLP, and Continuing Good Clinical Practices, or cGCP, are followed in the manufacture, nonclinical development and clinical development, respectively, of any drug product. The processes for obtaining regulatory approvals in Canada, along with subsequent compliance with applicable statutes and regulations, require the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. For further information, see “Risk Factors.”

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The principal steps required for drug approval in Canada are as follows:

Nonclinical Safety Pharmacology and Toxicology Studies

Non-clinical studies are conducted in vitro and in animals to evaluate pharmacokinetics, metabolism and possible toxic effects to provide evidence of the safety of the drug candidate prior to its administration to humans in clinical studies and throughout development. Such studies are conducted in accordance with applicable laws and GLP.

Clinical Trials

Similar regulations apply in Canada regarding clinical trials as in the United States. In Canada, Research Ethics Boards, or REBs, are used to review and approve clinical trial plans. Clinical trials involve the administration of an investigational new drug to human subjects under the supervision of qualified investigators, in most cases a physician, in accordance with cGCP requirements, which include review and approval by REBs. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the trial, the trial procedures, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety and the efficacy criteria to be evaluated and a statistical analysis plan. Human clinical trials for new drugs are typically conducted in three sequential phases, Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3, as discussed above in the context of government regulation in the United States. Similar to the FDA, Health Canada also accepts foreign clinical trial data in support of marketing applications. Additionally, the manufacture of investigational drugs for the conduct of human clinical trials is subject to cGMP requirements.

New Drug Submission

In Canada, upon successful completion of Phase 3 clinical trials or earlier stage trials if agreeable to Health Canada, the company sponsoring a new drug then assembles all the nonclinical and clinical data and other testing relating to the product’s pharmacology, chemistry, manufacture, and controls, and submits it to Health Canada as part of a New Drug Submission, or NDS. The NDS is then reviewed by Health Canada for approval to market the drug.

Health Canada will not approve the product unless compliance with cGMP—a quality system regulating manufacturing—is satisfactory and the NDS contains data that provide substantial evidence that the drug is safe and effective in the indication and at the dosage studied.

The testing and approval process for an NDS requires substantial time, effort and financial resources, and may take several years to complete. This is necessary to help ensure the efficacy, safety and quality of the product. Data obtained from nonclinical and clinical testing are not always conclusive and may be susceptible to varying interpretations, which could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval. Health Canada may not grant approval of an NDS on a timely basis, or at all. In Canada, NDSs are subject to user fees and these fees are typically increased annually to reflect inflation.

Health Canada also has authority to grant conditional approval of an NDS for a serious, life-threatening or severely debilitating disease or condition for which there is promising evidence of clinical effectiveness based on the available data that the drug has the potential to provide: effective treatment, prevention or diagnosis of a disease or condition for which no drug is presently marketed in Canada or a significant increase in efficacy and/or significant decrease in risk such that the overall benefit/risk profile is improved over existing therapies, preventatives or diagnostic agents for a disease or condition that is not adequately managed by a drug marketed in Canada.

Even if Health Canada approves a product candidate, it may limit the approved indications for use of the product candidate, require that contraindications, warnings or precautions be included in the product labeling, require that post-approval studies, including Phase 4 clinical trials, be conducted to further assess a drug’s safety after approval, require testing and surveillance programs to monitor the product after commercialization, or impose other conditions, including distribution restrictions or other risk management mechanisms.

Health Canada may prevent or limit further marketing of a product based on the results of post-marketing studies or surveillance programs. After approval, some types of changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications, manufacturing changes, and additional labeling claims, are subject to further testing requirements, notification, and regulatory authority review and approval. Further, should new safety information arise, additional testing, product labeling or regulatory notification may be required.

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European Union Approval Process

The process governing approval of medicinal products in the EU generally follows the same lines as in the United States. It entails satisfactory completion of preclinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to establish the safety and efficacy of the product for each proposed indication. It also requires the submission to the relevant competent authorities of an MAA and granting of a marketing authorization by these authorities before the product can be marketed and sold in the EU Following the UK’s departure from the EU, a separate marketing authorization will be required in order to place medicinal products on the market in Great Britain (under the Northern Irish Protocol, the EU regulatory framework will continue to apply in Northern Ireland and centralized EU authorizations will continue to be recognized).

Clinical Trial Approval

The Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC, the Directive 2005/28/EC on GCP and the related national implementing provisions of the individual Member States of the European Union, or EU Member States, govern the system for the approval of clinical trials in the EU. Under this system, an applicant must obtain prior approval from the national competent authority, or NCA, of the EU Member States in which the clinical trial is to be conducted. Furthermore, the applicant may only start a clinical trial at a specific study site after an independent ethics committee, or EC, has issued a favorable opinion. The clinical trial application must be accompanied by, among other documents, an investigational medicinal product dossier (the Common Technical Document) with supporting information prescribed by Directive 2001/20/EC, Directive 2005/28/EC, and corresponding national laws of the EU Member States and further detailed in applicable guidance documents. Under the current regime all suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions to the investigated drug that occur during the clinical trial have to be reported to the NCA and ECs of the EU Member State where they occurred.

In April 2014, the new Clinical Trials Regulation, (EU) No 536/2014, was adopted, which is set to replace the current Clinical Trials Directive. The Clinical Trials Regulation will be directly applicable in all EU Member States without the need for any national implementing legislation. It will overhaul the current system of approvals for clinical trials in the EU. The new Clinical Trials Regulation aims to simplify and streamline the approval of clinical trials in the EU.

Under the new coordinated procedure for the approval of clinical trials, the sponsor of a clinical trial will be required to submit a single application for approval of a clinical trial to a reporting EU Member State through a centralized EU Portal. The submission procedure will be the same irrespective of whether the clinical trial is to be conducted in a single EU Member State or in more than one EU Member State.

The Clinical Trials Regulation has not yet become effective. It is expected that the new Clinical Trials Regulation will come into effect following confirmation of the full functionality of the Clinical Trials Information System, the centralized EU portal and database for clinical trials foreseen by the new Clinical Trials Regulation, through an independent audit. This is currently expected to occur in December 2021. When the Clinical Trials Regulation becomes applicable, the existing Clinical Trial Directive and national legislation put in place to implement the Directive will be repealed. Following implementation of the Clinical Trials Regulation, a transitional period will be in effect for one year where new clinical trial applications can be submitted either under the existing Clinical Trials Directive or under the new Clinical Trials Regulation.

PRIME Designation in the EU

In March 2016, the EMA launched an initiative to facilitate development of product candidates in indications, often rare, for which few or no therapies currently exist. The PRIority MEdicines, or PRIME, scheme is intended to encourage drug development in areas of unmet medical need and provides accelerated assessment of products representing substantial innovation where the marketing authorization application will be made through the centralized procedure. Eligible products must target conditions for which where is an unmet medical need (there is no satisfactory method of diagnosis, prevention or treatment in the EEA or, if there is, the new medicine will bring a major therapeutic advantage) and they must demonstrate the potential to address the unmet medical need by introducing new methods of therapy or improving existing ones. Products from small- and medium-sized enterprises, or SMEs, may qualify for earlier entry into the PRIME scheme than larger companies. Many benefits accrue to sponsors of product candidates with PRIME designation, including but not limited to, early and proactive regulatory dialogue with the EMA, frequent discussions on clinical trial designs and other development program elements, and accelerated MAA assessment once a dossier has been submitted. Importantly, a dedicated contact and rapporteur from the EMA’s Committee for Human Medicinal Products, or CHMP, or Committee for Advanced Therapies, are appointed early in PRIME scheme facilitating increased understanding of the product at EMA’s Committee level. A

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kick-off meeting initiates these relationships and includes a team of multidisciplinary experts at the EMA to provide guidance on the overall development and regulatory strategies.

Fixed-Dose Combination Guideline

As with the FDA, the EMA has also issued regulations to address review and approval of fixed-dose combination products. This EMA’s Guideline on clinical development of fixed combination medicinal products came into force on October 1, 2017. The basic scientific requirements for any fixed combination medicinal product are justification of the pharmacological and medical rationale for the combination, and establishment of the evidence base for the relevant contribution of all active substances to the desired therapeutic effect (efficacy and/or safety) and a positive benefit-risk for the combination in the targeted indication. For products that involve initial combination of two active ingredients, the EMA has indicated that the design of clinical efficacy/safety studies to support a fixed combination medicinal product application for initial treatment will depend on its rationale, specifically to achieve superior efficacy or improved safety compared to use of the single active substances. In situations when it has been established that monotherapy will not be adequate, appropriate or ethical to reach the desired therapeutic effect, initial use of combination therapy should be easily justified (e.g. HIV).

Marketing Authorization

To obtain a marketing authorization for a product European Economic Area (i.e., the EU as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway), or EEA, an applicant must submit an MAA either under a centralized procedure administered by the EMA, or one of the procedures administered by competent authorities in the EU Member States (decentralized procedure, national procedure or mutual recognition procedure). A marketing authorization may be granted only to an applicant established in the EEA. Regulation (EC) No 1901/2006 provides that prior to obtaining a marketing authorization in the EU, applicants have to demonstrate compliance with all measures included in an EMA-approved Paediatric Investigation Plan, or PIP, covering all subsets of the pediatric population, unless the EMA has granted (1) a product-specific waiver, (2) a class waiver or (3) a deferral for one or more of the measures included in the PIP (for example, when this data is not needed or appropriate because the product is likely to be ineffective or unsafe in children, the disease or condition for which the product is intended occurs only in adult populations, or when the product does not represent a significant therapeutic benefit over existing treatments for pediatric patients). Products that are granted a marketing authorization with the results of the pediatric clinical trials conducted in accordance with the PIP (even where such results are negative) are eligible for six months’ supplementary protection certificate extension (if any is in effect at the time of approval).

The centralized procedure provides for the grant of a single marketing authorization by the European Commission that is valid across the EEA. Pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 726/2004, the centralized procedure is compulsory for specific products, including for medicines produced by certain biotechnological processes, products designated as orphan medicinal products, advanced therapy medicinal products (i.e. gene therapy, somatic-cell therapy and tissue-engineered medicinal products)and products with a new active substance indicated for the treatment of certain diseases, including HIV, AIDS, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, auto-immune and other immune dysfunctions and viral diseases. For products with a new active substance indicated for the treatment of other diseases and products that are highly innovative or for which a centralized process is in the interest of public health, the centralized procedure may be optional. The centralized procedure may at the request of the applicant also be used in certain other cases. We anticipate that the centralized procedure will be mandatory for the product candidates we are developing.

Under the centralized procedure, the CHMP is responsible for conducting the initial assessment of a product and for several post-authorization and maintenance activities, such as the assessment of modifications or extensions to an existing marketing authorization. Under the centralized procedure, the maximum timeframe for the evaluation of an MAA is 210 days, excluding clock stops, when additional information or written or oral explanation is to be provided by the applicant in response to questions of the CHMP. Clock stops may extend the timeframe of evaluation of an MAA considerably beyond 210 days. Accelerated evaluation might be granted by the CHMP in exceptional cases, when a medicinal product is of major interest from the point of view of public health and in particular from the viewpoint of therapeutic innovation. If the CHMP accepts such request, the time limit of 210 days will be reduced to 150 days (excluding clock stops) but it is possible that the CHMP can revert to the standard time limit for the centralized procedure if it considers that it is no longer appropriate to conduct an accelerated assessment. At the end of this period, the CHMP provides a scientific opinion on whether or not a marketing authorization should be granted in relation to a medicinal product. Where the CHMP gives a positive opinion, the EMA provides the opinion together with supporting documentation to the European Commission, who make the final decision to grant a marketing authorization, which is issued within 67 days of receipt of the EMA’s recommendation.

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The European Commission may grant a so-called “marketing authorization under exceptional circumstances”. Such authorization is intended for products for which the applicant can demonstrate that it is unable to provide comprehensive data on the efficacy and safety under normal conditions of use, because either (i) the indications for which the product in question is intended are encountered so rarely that the applicant cannot reasonably be expected to provide comprehensive evidence; (ii) in the present state of scientific knowledge, comprehensive information cannot be provided; or (iii) it would be contrary to generally accepted principles of medical ethics to collect such information. Consequently, marketing authorization under exceptional circumstances may be granted subject to certain specific obligations, which may include the following:

the applicant must complete an identified program of studies within a time period specified by the competent authority, the results of which form the basis of a reassessment of the benefit/risk profile;
the medicinal product in question may be supplied on medical prescription only and may in certain cases be administered only under strict medical supervision, possibly in a hospital and in the case of a radiopharmaceutical, by an authorized person; and
the package leaflet and any medical information must draw the attention of the medical practitioner to the fact that the particulars available concerning the medicinal product in question are as yet inadequate in certain specified respects.

A marketing authorization under exceptional circumstances is subject to annual review to reassess the risk-benefit balance in an annual reassessment procedure. Continuation of the authorization is linked to the annual reassessment and a negative assessment could potentially result in the marketing authorization being suspended or revoked. The renewal of a marketing authorization of a medicinal product under exceptional circumstances, however, follows the same rules as a “normal” marketing authorization. Thus, a marketing authorization under exceptional circumstances is granted for an initial five years, after which the authorization will become valid indefinitely, unless the EMA decides that safety grounds merit one additional five-year renewal.

The EU medicines rules expressly permit the EU Member States to adopt national legislation prohibiting or restricting the sale, supply or use of any medicinal product containing, consisting of or derived from a specific type of human or animal cell, such as embryonic stem cells. While the products we have in development do not make use of embryonic stem cells, it is possible that the national laws in certain EU Member States may prohibit or restrict us from commercializing our products, even if they have been granted an EU marketing authorization.

Unlike the centralized authorization procedure, the decentralized marketing authorization procedure requires a separate application to, and leads to separate approval by, the competent authorities of each EU Member State in which the product is to be marketed. This application is identical to the application that would be submitted to the EMA for authorization through the centralized procedure. The reference EU Member State prepares a draft assessment and drafts of the related materials within 120 days after receipt of a valid application. The resulting assessment report is submitted to the concerned EU Member States who, within 90 days of receipt, must decide whether to approve the assessment report and related materials. If a concerned EU Member State cannot approve the assessment report and related materials due to concerns relating to a potential serious risk to public health, disputed elements may be referred to the European Commission, whose decision is binding on all EU Member States.

The mutual recognition procedure similarly is based on the acceptance by the competent authorities of the EU Member States of the marketing authorization of a medicinal product by the competent authorities of other EU Member States. The holder of a national marketing authorization may submit an application to the competent authority of an EU Member State requesting that this authority recognize the marketing authorization delivered by the competent authority of another EU Member State.

Conditional Marketing Authorization

The European Commission may also grant a so-called “conditional marketing authorization” prior to obtaining the comprehensive clinical data required for an application for a full marketing authorization. Such conditional marketing authorizations may be granted for product candidates (including medicines designated as orphan medicinal products), if (i) the risk-benefit balance of the product candidate is positive, (ii) it is likely that the applicant will be in a position to provide the required comprehensive clinical trial data post-authorization, (iii) the product fulfills an unmet medical need and (iv) the benefit to public health of the immediate availability on the market of the medicinal product concerned outweighs the risk inherent in the fact that additional data are still required. A conditional marketing authorization may contain specific obligations to be fulfilled by the marketing authorization holder, including obligations with respect to the completion of

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ongoing or new studies, and with respect to the collection of pharmacovigilance data. Conditional marketing authorizations are valid for one year, and may be renewed annually, if the risk-benefit balance remains positive, and after an assessment of the need for additional or modified conditions and/or specific obligations. The timelines for the centralized procedure described above also apply with respect to the review by the CHMP of applications for a conditional marketing authorization. A conditional marketing authorization can be converted into a standard centralized marketing authorization (no longer subject to specific obligations) once the marketing authorization holder fulfils the obligations imposed and the complete data confirm that the medicine’s benefits continue to outweigh its risks.

Regulatory Data Protection in the EU

In the EEA, innovative medicinal products approved on the basis of a complete independent data package qualify for eight years of data exclusivity upon marketing authorization and an additional two years of market exclusivity. Data exclusivity, if granted, prevents applicants for authorization of generics or biosimilars of these innovative products from referencing the innovator’s preclinical and clinical trial data contained in the dossier of the reference product when applying for a generic or biosimilar marketing authorization, for a period of eight years from the date on which the reference product was first authorized in the EEA. During an additional two-year period of market exclusivity, a generic or biosimilar MAA can be submitted and authorized, and the innovator’s data may be referenced, but no generic or biosimilar medicinal product can be placed on the EEA market until the expiration of the market exclusivity. The overall ten-year period will be extended to a maximum of 11 years if, during the first eight years of those ten years, the marketing authorization holder obtains an authorization for one or more new therapeutic indications which, during the scientific evaluation prior to their authorization, are held to bring a significant clinical benefit in comparison with existing therapies. Even if a compound is considered to be an innovative medical product so that the innovator gains the prescribed period of data exclusivity, another company nevertheless could also market another version of the product if such company obtained marketing authorization based on an MAA with a complete independent data package of pharmaceutical tests, preclinical tests and clinical trials.

Periods of Authorization and Renewals

A marketing authorization has an initial validity for five years in principle. The marketing authorization may be renewed after five years on the basis of a re-evaluation of the risk-benefit balance by the EMA (for a centrally authorized product) or by the competent authority of the relevant EU Member State(for a centrally authorized product). To this end, the marketing authorization holder must provide the EMA or the competent authority with a consolidated version of the file in respect of quality, safety and efficacy, including all variations introduced since the marketing authorization was granted, at least six months before the marketing authorization ceases to be valid. The European Commission or the competent authorities of the EU Member States may decide, on justified grounds relating to pharmacovigilance, to proceed with one further five-year period of marketing authorization. Once subsequently definitively renewed, the marketing authorization shall be valid for an unlimited period. Any authorization which is not followed by the actual placing of the medicinal product on the EEA market (in case of centralized procedure) or on the market of the authorizing EU Member State within three years after authorization, or if the product is removed from the market for three consecutive years, ceases to be valid (the so-called sunset clause).

Orphan Drug Designation and Exclusivity

Regulation (EC) No. 141/2000, as implemented by Regulation (EC) No. 847/2000 provides that a drug can be designated as an orphan drug by the European Commission if its sponsor can establish: that the product is intended for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of a life-threatening or chronically debilitating condition and either (i) the prevalence of the condition is affecting not more than five in ten thousand persons in the EU when the application is made, or (ii) that without incentives it is unlikely that the marketing of the drug in the EU would generate sufficient return to justify the necessary investment in its development. In each case, the applicant must demonstrate that there exists no satisfactory method of diagnosis, prevention or treatment of the condition in question that has been authorized in the EU or, if such method exists, the drug will be of significant benefit to those affected by that condition.

Once authorized, orphan medicinal products are entitled to ten years of market exclusivity in all EU Member States and in addition a range of other benefits during the development and regulatory review process including scientific assistance for study protocols, authorization through the centralized marketing authorization procedure and a reduction or elimination of registration and marketing authorization fees. During the period of market exclusivity, marketing authorization may only be granted for a “similar medicinal product” with the same orphan indication if: (i) the marketing authorization holder for the original orphan medicinal product consents to the authorization of the second orphan product; or (ii) the manufacturer of the

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original orphan medicinal product is unable to supply sufficient quantities. Marketing authorization may also be granted to a similar medicinal product with the same orphan indication if it is established that this product is safer, more effective or otherwise clinically superior to the original orphan medicinal product. A “similar medicinal product” is defined as a medicinal product containing a similar active substance or substances as contained in an authorized orphan medicinal product, and which is intended for the same therapeutic indication. The period of market exclusivity may, in addition, be reduced to six years if at the end of the fifth year, it is established that the product no longer meets the criteria for orphan drug designation because, for example, the original orphan medicinal product is sufficiently profitable not to justify maintenance of market exclusivity.

Regulatory Requirements After a Marketing Authorization has been Obtained

Where an authorization for a medicinal product in the EU is obtained, the holder of the marketing authorization is required to comply with a range of requirements applicable to the manufacturing, marketing, promotion and sale of medicinal products. These include:

Compliance with the EU’s stringent pharmacovigilance or safety reporting rules must be ensured. These rules can impose post-authorization studies and additional monitoring obligations.
The manufacturing of authorized medicinal products, for which a separate manufacturer’s license is mandatory, must also be conducted in strict compliance with the applicable EU laws, regulations and guidance, including Directive 2001/83/EC, Directive 2003/94/EC, Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 and the European Commission Guidelines for Good Manufacturing Practice. These requirements include compliance with EU cGMP standards when manufacturing medicinal products and active pharmaceutical ingredients, including the manufacture of active pharmaceutical ingredients outside of the EU with the intention to import the active pharmaceutical ingredients into the EU.
The marketing and promotion of authorized drugs, including industry-sponsored continuing medical education and advertising directed toward the prescribers of drugs and/or the general public, are strictly regulated in the EU notably under Directive 2001/83EC, as amended, and are also subject to EU Member State national laws. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines is prohibited across the EU.

General Data Protection Regulation

The collection, use, disclosure, transfer, or other processing of personal data regarding individuals in the EU, including personal health data, is subject to the EU General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which became effective on May 25, 2018. The GDPR is wide-ranging in scope and imposes numerous requirements on companies that process personal data, including requirements relating to processing health and other sensitive data, obtaining consent of the individuals to whom the personal data relates, providing information to individuals regarding data processing activities, implementing safeguards to protect the security and confidentiality of personal data, providing notification of data breaches, and taking certain measures when engaging third-party processors. The GDPR also imposes strict rules on the transfer of personal data to countries outside the EU, including the United States, and permits data protection authorities to impose large penalties for violations of the GDPR, including potential fines of up to €20 million or 4% of annual global revenues, whichever is greater. The GDPR also confers a private right of action on data subjects and consumer associations to lodge complaints with supervisory authorities, seek judicial remedies, and obtain compensation for damages resulting from violations of the GDPR. Compliance with the GDPR will be a rigorous and time-intensive process that may increase the cost of doing business or require companies to change their business practices to ensure full compliance.

Brexit and the Regulatory Framework in the United Kingdom

On June 23, 2016, the electorate in the United Kingdom voted in favor of leaving the EU, commonly referred to as Brexit. Following protracted negotiations, the United Kingdom left the EU on January 31, 2020. A transition period began on February 1, 2020, during which EU pharmaceutical law remained applicable to the United Kingdom, however this ended on December 31, 2020. Since the regulatory framework in the United Kingdom covering quality, safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products, clinical trials, marketing authorization, commercial sales and distribution of pharmaceutical products is derived from EU Directives and Regulations, Brexit could materially impact the future regulatory regime that applies to products and the approval of product candidates in the United Kingdom, as the United Kingdom legislation now has the potential to diverge from EU legislation. It remains to be seen how Brexit will impact regulatory requirements for product candidates and products in the United Kingdom in the long-term. The MHRA has recently published detailed

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guidance for industry and organizations to follow from January 1, 2021 now that the transition period is over, which will be updated as the United Kingdom’s regulatory position on medical products evolves over time.

Furthermore, while the Data Protection Act of 2018 in the United Kingdom that “implements” and complements the EU’s GDPR, is now effective in the United Kingdom, it is still unclear whether transfer of data from the European Economic Area, or EEA, to the United Kingdom will remain lawful under GDPR. The Trade and Cooperation Agreement provides for a transitional period during which the United Kingdom will be treated like an EU Member State in relation to processing and transfers of personal data for four months from January 1, 2021. This may be extended by two further months. After such period, the United Kingdom will be a “third country” under the GDPR unless the European Commission adopts an adequacy decision in respect of transfers of personal data to the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom has already determined that it considers all of the EU and EEA member states to be adequate for the purposes of data protection, ensuring that data flows from the United Kingdom to the EU and EEA remain unaffected.

Pricing Decisions for Approved Products

In the EU, pricing and reimbursement schemes vary widely from country to country. Some countries provide that products may be marketed only after a reimbursement price has been agreed. Some countries may require the completion of additional studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of a particular product candidate to currently available therapies or so-called health technology assessments, in order to obtain reimbursement or pricing approval. For example, EU Member States have the option to restrict the range of products for which their national health insurance systems provide reimbursement and to control the prices of medicinal products for human use. EU Member States may approve a specific price for a product or it may instead adopt a system of direct or indirect controls on the profitability of the company placing the product on the market. Other EU Member States allow companies to fix their own prices for products, but monitor and control prescription volumes and issue guidance to physicians to limit prescriptions. Recently, many countries in the EU have increased the amount of discounts required on pharmaceuticals and these efforts could continue as countries attempt to manage health care expenditures, especially in light of the severe fiscal and debt crises experienced by many countries in the EU. The downward pressure on health care costs in general, particularly prescription products, has become intense.

As a result, increasingly high barriers are being erected to the entry of new products. Political, economic and regulatory developments may further complicate pricing negotiations, and pricing negotiations may continue after reimbursement has been obtained. Reference pricing used by various EU Member States, and parallel trade, i.e., arbitrage between low-priced and high-priced EU Member States, can further reduce prices. There can be no assurance that any country that has price controls or reimbursement limitations for pharmaceutical products will allow favorable reimbursement and pricing arrangements for any products, if approved in those countries.

Rest of the World Regulation

For other countries outside of Canada, the EU and the United States, such as countries in Eastern Europe, Latin America or Asia, the requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary from country to country. Additionally, the clinical trials must be conducted in accordance with GCP requirements and the applicable regulatory requirements and the ethical principles that have their origin in the Declaration of Helsinki.

If we fail to comply with applicable foreign regulatory requirements, we may be subject to, among other things, fines, suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals, product recalls, seizure of products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecution.

Coverage and Reimbursement

Successful commercialization of new drug products depends in part on the extent to which reimbursement for those drug products will be available from government health administration authorities, private health insurers, and other organizations. In the United States, government authorities and third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which drug products they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. The availability and extent of reimbursement by governmental and private payors is essential for most patients to be able to afford a drug product. Sales of drug products depend substantially, both domestically and abroad, on the extent to which the costs of drugs products are paid for by health maintenance, managed care, pharmacy benefit and similar healthcare management organizations, or reimbursed by government health administration authorities, private health coverage insurers and other third-party payors.

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A primary trend in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. Government authorities and third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular drug products. Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the price, examining the medical necessity, and reviewing the cost-effectiveness of medical products, therapies and services, in addition to questioning their safety and efficacy. Obtaining reimbursement for our products may be particularly difficult because of the higher prices often associated with branded drugs and drugs administered under the supervision of a physician. We may need to conduct expensive pharmacoeconomic studies in order to demonstrate the medical necessity and cost-effectiveness of our products, in addition to the costs required to obtain FDA and foreign approvals. These studies could result in delays or disadvantageous coverage for products we develop. Our product candidates may not be considered medically necessary or cost-effective. Obtaining coverage and reimbursement approval of a product from a government or other third-party payor is a time-consuming and costly process that could require us to provide to each payor supporting scientific, clinical and cost-effectiveness data for the use of our product on a payor-by-payor basis, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be obtained. A payor’s decision to provide coverage for a product does not imply that an adequate reimbursement rate will be approved. Further, one payor’s determination to provide coverage for a product does not assure that other payors will also provide coverage for the product. Adequate third-party reimbursement may not be available to enable us to maintain price levels sufficient to realize an appropriate return on its investment in product development. If reimbursement is not available or is available only at limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize any product candidate that we successfully develop.

In many countries, the prices of drug products are subject to varying price control mechanisms as part of national health systems. In general, the prices of drug products under such systems are substantially lower than in the United States. Other countries allow companies to fix their own prices for drug products, but monitor and control company profits. Accordingly, in markets outside the United States, the reimbursement for drug products may be reduced compared with the United States.

In the United States, the principal decisions about reimbursement for new drug products are typically made by CMS, an agency within the HHS. CMS decides whether and to what extent a new drug product will be covered and reimbursed under Medicare, and private payors tend to follow CMS to a substantial degree. However, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for drug products exists among third-party payors and coverage and reimbursement levels for drug products can differ significantly from payor to payor. Coverage and reimbursement by a third-party payor may depend upon a number of factors, including the third-party payor’s determination that use of a drug product is:

a covered benefit under its health plan;
safe, effective and medically necessary;
appropriate for the specific patient;
cost-effective; and
neither experimental nor investigational.

We cannot be sure that coverage or reimbursement will be available for any product that we commercialize and, if coverage and reimbursement are available, what the level of reimbursement will be. Coverage may also be more limited than the purposes for which the product is approved by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Future coverage and reimbursement may be subject to increased restrictions, such as prior authorization requirements, and to changes in the rates of reimbursement for orphan drug products both in the United States and in international markets. Reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, any product for which we obtain regulatory approval.

The MMA established the Medicare Part D program to provide a voluntary prescription drug benefit to Medicare beneficiaries. Under Part D, Medicare beneficiaries may enroll in prescription drug plans offered by private entities that provide coverage of outpatient prescription drugs. While all Medicare drug plans must give at least a standard level of coverage set by Medicare, Part D prescription drug plan sponsors are not required to pay for all covered Part D drugs, and each Part D prescription drug plan can develop its own drug formulary that identifies which drugs it will cover and at what tier or level. However, Part D prescription drug formularies must include drugs within each therapeutic category and class of covered Part D drugs, though not necessarily all the drugs in each category or class. Any formulary used by a Part D prescription drug plan must be developed and reviewed by a pharmacy and therapeutic committee. Government payment for some of the costs of prescription drugs may increase demand for drugs for which we obtain marketing approval. Any negotiated prices for any of our products covered by a Part D prescription drug plan will likely be lower than the prices we might otherwise obtain. Moreover, while the MMA applies only to drug benefits for Medicare beneficiaries, private payors

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often follow Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own payment rates. Any reduction in payment that results from the MMA may result in a similar reduction in payments from non-governmental payors.

For a drug product to receive federal reimbursement under the Medicaid or Medicare Part B programs or to be sold directly to U.S. government agencies, the manufacturer must extend discounts to entities eligible to participate in the 340B drug pricing program. The required 340B discount on a given product is calculated based on the average manufacturer price, or AMP, and Medicaid rebate amounts reported by the manufacturer. As of 2010, the ACA expanded the types of entities eligible to receive discounted 340B pricing, although under the current state of the law these newly eligible entities (with the exception of children’s hospitals) will not be eligible to receive discounted 340B pricing on orphan drugs. As the required 340B discount is determined based on average manufacturer price, or AMP, and Medicaid rebate data, the revisions to the Medicaid rebate formula and AMP definition described above could cause the required 340B discount to increase. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provides funding for the federal government to compare the effectiveness of different treatments for the same illness. The plan for the research was published in 2012 by HHS, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the NIH, and periodic reports on the status of the research and related expenditures are made to Congress. Although the results of the comparative effectiveness studies are not intended to mandate coverage policies for public or private payors, it is not clear what effect, if any, the research will have on the sales of our product candidates, if any such drug or the condition that they are intended to treat are the subject of a trial. It is also possible that comparative effectiveness research demonstrating benefits in a competitor’s drug could adversely affect the sales of our product candidate. If third-party payors do not consider our drugs to be cost-effective compared to other available therapies, they may not cover our drugs after approval as a benefit under their plans or, if they do, the level of payment may not be sufficient to allow us to sell our drugs on a profitable basis.

These laws and future state and federal healthcare reform measures may be adopted in the future, any of which may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding and otherwise affect the prices we may obtain for any product candidates for which we may obtain regulatory approval or the frequency with which any such product candidate is prescribed or used.

Outside of the United States, the pricing of pharmaceutical products and medical devices is subject to governmental control in many countries. For example, in the EU, pricing and reimbursement schemes vary widely from country to country. Some countries provide that products may be marketed only after a reimbursement price has been agreed. Some countries may require the completion of additional studies that compare the cost effectiveness of a particular therapy to currently available therapies or so-called health technology assessments, in order to obtain reimbursement or pricing approval. Other countries may allow companies to fix their own prices for products, but monitor and control product volumes and issue guidance to physicians to limit prescriptions. Efforts to control prices and utilization of pharmaceutical products and medical devices will likely continue as countries attempt to manage healthcare expenditures.

Employees and Human Capital

As of March 15, 2022, we had 205 full-time employees, including a total of Twenty-eight employees with M.D. and/or Ph.D. degrees. Of our workforce, 61 employees are directly engaged in research and development with the rest providing administrative, business and operations support. None of our employees are represented by labor unions or covered by collective bargaining agreements. We consider the relationship with our employees to be good. We also use outside consultants and contractors with unique expertise and skills for limited engagements. As of March 15, 2022, we utilized multiple outside consultants or contractors that represented approximately 6 full-time equivalents to supplement our full-time workforce.

Our human capital is integral to helping us achieve our goal to end the suffering caused by neurodegenerative diseases. Our human capital resources objectives include, as applicable, identifying, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating our existing and additional employees. The principal purposes of our equity incentive plans are to attract, retain and motivate selected employees, consultants and directors through the granting of stock-based compensation awards and cash-based performance bonus awards.

Available Information

We file Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our filings with the SEC are available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. We also maintain a website at http://www.amylyx.com. We make available, free of charge, in the Investors section of our

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website, documents we file with or furnish to the SEC, including our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any exhibits and amendments to those reports. We make this information available as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such materials with, or furnish such information to, the SEC. The other information found on our website is not part of this or any other report we file with, or furnish to, the SEC.

 

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Careful consideration should be given to the following risk factors, in addition to the other information set forth in this Annual Report and in other documents that we file with the SEC, in evaluating our business and our prospects. Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. If any of the following risks and uncertainties actually occurs, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. The risks described below are not intended to be exhaustive and are not the only risks that we face. New risk factors can emerge from time to time, and it is not possible to predict the impact that any factor or combination of factors may have on our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Summary of Risk Factors

Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Capital

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company and we have incurred significant losses since our inception. We anticipate that we will continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future.
We have never generated revenue from product sales and may never be profitable.
We have a limited operating history and only one product candidate, AMX0035, which is in preclinical and clinical trials and has no commercial sales, which may make it difficult to evaluate the prospects for our future viability.

Risks Related to the Discovery and Development of Our Current or Future Product Candidates

We currently depend on the success of AMX0035, which is our only product candidate. If we are unable to obtain regulatory approval for, and successfully commercialize, AMX0035, or experience significant delays in doing so, our business may be materially harmed.
The denial of regulatory approval or the requirement to resubmit any marketing application with additional data or information for AMX0035 in any jurisdiction could mean that we need to delay or even cease operations, and a delay in obtaining such approval would delay commercialization of AMX0035 and adversely impact our ability to generate revenue, our business and our results of operations.
We have never commercialized a product and may experience delays or unexpected difficulties in obtaining regulatory approval for AMX0035 for our initial or potential additional indications.
AMX0035 is a fixed-dose combination drug product and certain regulatory authorities, including the FDA, require a demonstration that each component makes a contribution to the claimed effects in addition to demonstrating that the combination is safe and effective for the intended population.
We have concentrated our research and development efforts on the treatment of neurodegenerative and central nervous system, or CNS, disorders, a field that has seen very limited success in product development.
The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA and other comparable foreign authorities are lengthy, time-consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for AMX0035 or any future product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.
Competitive products may reduce or eliminate the commercial opportunity for AMX0035 for our current or future indications. If our competitors develop technologies or product candidates more rapidly than we do, or their technologies or product candidates are more effective or safer than ours, our ability to develop and successfully commercialize AMX0035 may be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties

We may in the future enter into collaborations with third parties for the development and commercialization of AMX0035 or any future product candidates, and our prospects with respect to those product candidates will depend in significant part on the success of those collaborations.
We rely on third parties to assist in conducting our clinical trials. If they do not perform satisfactorily, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval or commercialize AMX0035 or any future product candidates, or such approval or commercialization may be delayed, and our business could be substantially harmed.

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Our use of third parties to manufacture AMX0035 may increase the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of AMX0035, products, or necessary quantities of such materials on time or at an acceptable cost.

Risks Related to Commercialization of AMX0035 or Future Product Candidates

We currently have limited sales and marketing capabilities. If we are unable to establish effective sales and marketing capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to market and sell AMX0035 and any future product candidates that may be approved, we may not be successful in commercializing AMX0035 and any future product candidates if and when approved, and we may be unable to generate any product revenue.
Even if AMX0035 or any future product candidate of ours receives regulatory approval, it may fail to achieve the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success, in which case we may not generate significant revenues or become profitable.
Healthcare insurance coverage and reimbursement may be limited or unavailable for AMX0035 and any future product candidates, if approved, which could make it difficult for us to sell any product candidates or therapies profitably.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

Our commercial success depends on our ability to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology.

Risks Related to Our Business Operations, Employee Matters and Managing Growth

A pandemic, epidemic, or outbreak of an infectious disease, such as the ongoing and evolving COVID-19 pandemic, may materially and adversely affect our business, including our preclinical studies, clinical trials, third parties on whom we rely, our supply chain, our ability to raise capital, our ability to conduct regular business and our financial results.
We depend heavily on our executive officers, principal consultants and others, and the loss of their services would materially harm our business.
We expect to expand our organization, and as a result, we may encounter difficulties in managing our growth, which could disrupt our operations.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

Unstable market, economic, political and geographical conditions may have serious adverse consequences on our business, financial condition and stock price.
Concentration of ownership of our common stock among our existing executive officers, directors and principal stockholders may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions.
We previously identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may be unable to accurately report our results of operations, meet our reporting obligations or prevent fraud, and investor confidence in our company and the market price of our common stock may be materially and adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Capital

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company and we have incurred significant losses since our inception. We anticipate that we will continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future.

Investment in biopharmaceutical product development is highly speculative because it entails substantial upfront capital expenditures and significant risk that any potential product candidate will fail to demonstrate adequate effect or an acceptable safety profile, gain regulatory approval and become commercially viable. Although we have invested substantial resources into our product development efforts and toward the potential commercialization of AMX0035, we have no products approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue from product sales to date, and we will continue to incur significant research and development and other expenses related to clinical development, preparation for commercialization, and ongoing operations. As a result, we are not profitable and have incurred losses in each period since our inception. Since our inception, we have devoted the majority of our financial resources and efforts to research and development, including preclinical studies and our clinical trials, and preparation for commercialization. Our financial

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condition and operating results, including our expenses and net losses, may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year. Accordingly, you should not rely upon the results of any quarterly or annual periods as indications of future operating performance. Additionally, net losses and negative cash flows have had, and will continue to have, an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity and working capital. Our net losses were $87.9 million and $42.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. As of December 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $155.8 million. We expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future, and we expect these losses to increase as we continue our research and development of, and seek regulatory approvals for our product candidate, AMX0035, for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, Alzheimer’s disease, or AD, and potential additional indications, as well as for future product candidates we may develop.

We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially if and as we:

continue to develop and conduct clinical trials for AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, AD and potential additional indications;
initiate and continue research, preclinical and clinical development efforts for any future product candidates;
seek to identify additional product candidates;
seek regulatory approvals in Canada, the United States, the European Union, or EU, and other geographies for AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, AD and other indications that successfully complete clinical development;
experience any delays or encounter any issues with any of the above, including but not limited to the potential that the FDA or other regulators require additional data to support the approval of AMX0035 for ALS, failed studies, negative or mixed clinical trial results, safety issues or other regulatory challenges, the risk of which in each case may be exacerbated by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;
establish sales, marketing, distribution, manufacturing, supply chain and other commercial infrastructure in the future to commercialize various products for which we may obtain regulatory approval;
add operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our product candidate development and help us comply with our obligations as a public company;
hire and retain additional personnel, such as clinical, quality control, scientific, commercial and administrative personnel;
maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio;
add equipment and physical infrastructure to support our research and development; and
acquire or in-license other product candidates and technologies.

We are currently building our infrastructure, including sales and marketing and production capabilities, for commercialization in Canada and the United States in anticipation of potential regulatory approvals in the near term. As of March 15, 2022, we had 205 full-time employees.

Our expenses could increase beyond our expectations if we are required by Health Canada, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, the European Medicines Agency, or the EMA, or other regulatory authorities to perform clinical trials or conduct other studies in addition to those that we currently expect, or if there are any delays in establishing appropriate manufacturing arrangements for or in completing our clinical trials or the development of AMX0035 or any future product candidates we may develop.

We have never generated revenue from product sales and may never be profitable.

Our ability to become and remain profitable depends on our ability to generate revenue. We do not expect to generate significant revenue, if any, unless and until we, either alone or with a collaborator, are able to obtain regulatory approval for, and successfully commercialize, AMX0035 for our initial and potential additional indications, or any future product candidates we may develop. Successful commercialization will require achievement of many key milestones, which vary by jurisdiction and may include demonstrating safety and efficacy in clinical trials, obtaining regulatory, including marketing, approval for these product candidates, manufacturing, marketing and selling those products for which we, or any of our future collaborators, may obtain regulatory approval, satisfying any post-marketing requirements and obtaining reimbursement for our products from private insurance or government payors. Because of the uncertainties and risks

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associated with these activities, we are unable to accurately and precisely predict the timing and amount of revenues, the extent of any further losses or if or when we might achieve profitability. We and any future collaborators may never succeed in these activities and, even if we do, or any future collaborators do, we may never generate revenues that are large enough for us to achieve profitability. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis.

Our failure to become and remain profitable may depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital, expand our business, diversify our product offerings or continue our operations. If we continue to suffer losses as we have in the past, investors may not receive any return on their investment and may lose their entire investment.

We have a limited operating history and only one product candidate, AMX0035, which is in preclinical and clinical trials and has no commercial sales, which may make it difficult to evaluate the prospects for our future viability.

We are a biopharmaceutical company founded in 2013, and our operations to date have been limited to organizing, staffing and financing our company, raising capital, and conducting research and development activities, including preclinical studies and clinical trials, for AMX0035. We have not yet demonstrated an ability to generate revenues, obtain regulatory approvals, manufacture a commercial product, or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. Accordingly, you should consider our prospects in light of the costs, uncertainties, delays and difficulties frequently encountered by companies in clinical development, especially clinical-stage biopharmaceutical companies such as ours. Any predictions you make about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history or a history of successfully developing and commercializing pharmaceutical products.

We may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known or unknown factors in achieving our business objectives. We are preparing to transition from a company with a development focus to a company capable of supporting commercial activities. We may not be successful in such a transition.

We will require substantial additional funding to meet our financial needs and to pursue our business objectives. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our product discovery and development activities or commercialization efforts.

Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception. We expect to continue to spend substantial amounts to continue the preclinical and clinical development of AMX0035 and any future product candidates. If we are able to gain marketing approval for AMX0035 or any future product candidates that we develop, including any indication for which we are developing or may develop AMX0035, we will require significant additional amounts of cash in order to launch and commercialize such product candidates to the extent that such launch and commercialization are not the responsibility of a collaborator that we may contract with in the future. In addition, other unanticipated costs may arise in the course of our development efforts. Because the design and outcome of our ongoing and anticipated clinical trials is highly uncertain, we cannot reasonably estimate the actual amounts necessary to successfully complete the development and commercialization of any product candidate we develop.

Our future capital requirements depend on many factors, including:

the scope, progress, results and costs of researching and developing AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, AD and potential additional indications, as well as any future product candidates we may develop;
the timing of, and the costs involved in, obtaining marketing approvals for AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, AD and potential additional indications, and any future product candidates we may develop and pursue;
the number of future product candidates that we may pursue and their development requirements;
if approved, the costs of commercialization activities for AMX0035 for any approved indications, or any other product candidate that receives regulatory approval to the extent such costs are not the responsibility of any future collaborators, including the costs and timing of establishing product sales, marketing, distribution and manufacturing capabilities;
subject to receipt of regulatory approval, revenue, if any, received from commercial sales of AMX0035 for any approved indications or any future product candidates;

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the extent to which we in-license or acquire rights to other products, product candidates or technologies;
our headcount growth and associated costs as we expand our research and development, increase our office space, and establish a commercial infrastructure;
the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and protecting our intellectual property rights, including enforcing and defending intellectual property related claims; and
the ongoing costs of operating as a public company.

We cannot be certain that additional funding will be available on acceptable terms, or at all. As a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and actions taken to slow its spread, the global credit and financial markets have experienced extreme volatility and disruptions, including diminished liquidity and credit availability, declines in consumer confidence, declines in economic growth, increases in unemployment rates, and uncertainty about economic stability. If the equity and credit markets deteriorate, it may make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult, more costly or more dilutive.

We have no committed source of additional capital and if we are unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, we may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of AMX0035 or any future product candidates or other research and development initiatives. We may need to seek collaborators for AMX0035 and any future product candidates at an earlier stage than otherwise would be desirable or on terms that are less favorable than might otherwise be available or relinquish or license on unfavorable terms our rights to AMX0035 and any future product candidates in markets where we otherwise would seek to pursue development or commercialization ourselves. Any of the above events could significantly harm our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations and cause the price of our common stock to decline.

We believe that the net proceeds from our initial public offering, together with our existing cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments, will be sufficient to meet our anticipated operating and capital expenditure requirements for at least twelve months after the date of this filing. Our estimate may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Further, changing circumstances, some of which may be beyond our control, could cause us to consume capital significantly faster than we currently anticipate, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our stockholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.

We expect our expenses to increase in connection with our planned operations. Unless and until we can generate a substantial amount of revenue from AMX0035 or any future product candidates, we expect to finance our future cash needs through public or private equity offerings, royalty-based or debt financings, collaborations, licensing arrangements or other sources, or any combination of the foregoing. In addition, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe that we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans.

To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities, your ownership interest may be diluted, and the terms of these securities could include liquidation or other preferences and anti-dilution protections that could adversely affect your rights as a common stockholder. In addition, debt financing, if available, may result in fixed payment obligations and may involve agreements that include restrictive covenants that limit our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures, creating liens, redeeming stock or declaring dividends, that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business. In addition, securing financing could require a substantial amount of time and attention from our management and may divert a disproportionate amount of their attention away from day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our management’s ability to oversee the development of AMX0035 or any future product candidates.

If we raise additional funds through collaborations or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams or product candidates or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us.

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Changes in tax law could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

The rules dealing with U.S. federal, state, and local income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Treasury Department. Changes to tax laws (which changes may have retroactive application) could adversely affect us or holders of our common stock. In recent years, many such changes have been made and changes are likely to continue to occur in the future. Future changes in tax laws could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flow, financial condition or results of operations. We urge investors to consult with their legal and tax advisers regarding the implications of potential changes in tax laws on an investment in our common stock.

Risks Related to the Discovery and Development of Our Current or Future Product Candidates

We currently depend on the success of AMX0035, which is our only product candidate. If we are unable to obtain regulatory approval for, and successfully commercialize, AMX0035, or experience significant delays in doing so, our business may be materially harmed.

We currently only have one product candidate, AMX0035, and our business and future success depends entirely on our ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval for, and then successfully commercialize, AMX0035, which is currently in clinical development for patients with ALS and AD. To date, we have obtained limited clinical trial data supporting AMX0035, having only completed a clinical trial of 137 patients with ALS and a clinical trial in 95 patients with AD. We are conducting an additional clinical trial of AMX0035 in ALS and intend to conduct additional clinical trials for other indications in the future. This may make an investment in our company riskier than similar companies that have multiple product candidates in active development that may be able to better sustain failure of a lead product candidate.

We currently have no products approved for sale and are investing the majority of our efforts and financial resources in the development of our product candidate, AMX0035, for the treatment of ALS, AD and other diseases. Successful continued development and ultimate regulatory approval of AMX0035 for our initial and potential additional indications is critical to the future success of our business. We will need to raise sufficient funds for, and successfully enroll and complete, our clinical development of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, AD and other indications. The future regulatory and commercial success of AMX0035 is subject to a number of risks, including the following:

successful completion of preclinical studies and clinical trials;
successful patient enrollment in clinical trials;
successful data from our preclinical studies and clinical trials that supports an acceptable risk-benefit profile of AMX0035 or any future product candidates in the intended populations;
satisfaction of applicable regulatory requirements, including to satisfy applicable rules governing fixed dose combination products;
the interpretation of our preclinical and clinical data by regulatory authorities to support marketing approvals;
potential unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects;
receipt and maintenance of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities, including with any expected new chemical entity and new clinical investigation data exclusivity and orphan drug market exclusivity;
obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity for AMX0035 or any future product candidates;
making arrangements with third-party manufacturers, or establishing manufacturing capabilities, for both clinical and commercial supplies of AMX0035 or any future product candidates;
entry into collaborations to further the development of AMX0035 or any future product candidates;
establishing sales, marketing and distribution capabilities and launching commercial sales of our products, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others;
successfully launching commercial sales of AMX0035 or any future product candidates, if and when approved;
acceptance of AMX0035 or any other products, if and when approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;

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obtaining and maintaining third-party coverage and adequate reimbursement;
maintaining a continued acceptable safety profile of the products following approval;
effectively competing with other therapies;
ensuring that we promote and distribute our products consistent with all applicable healthcare laws; and
enforcing and defending intellectual property rights and claims.

Many of these risks are beyond our control, including the risks related to clinical development, the regulatory submission process, potential threats to our intellectual property rights and the manufacturing, marketing and sales efforts of any future collaborator. If we are unable to develop, receive regulatory approval for, or successfully commercialize AMX0035 for the indications we are developing it for, or if we experience delays as a result of any of these risks or otherwise, our business could be materially harmed.

In addition, of the large number of drugs in development in the pharmaceutical industry, only a small percentage result in the submission of a new drug submission, or NDS, to Health Canada, a new drug application, or NDA, to the FDA or a marketing authorization application, or MAA, to the EMA, and even fewer are approved for commercialization. Furthermore, even if we do receive regulatory approval for AMX0035 for any indication, any such approval may be subject to limitations on the indications or uses or the patient populations for which we may market the product. Accordingly, even if we are able to obtain the requisite financing to continue to fund our development activities, we cannot assure you that we will successfully develop or commercialize AMX0035 for any indication. If we or any of our future collaborators are unable to develop, or obtain regulatory approval for, or, if approved, successfully commercialize AMX0035 for our initial or potential additional indications, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to continue our business. In addition, our failure to demonstrate positive results in our clinical trials in any indication for which we are developing AMX0035, or to satisfy other regulatory requirements could adversely affect our development efforts for AMX0035 in other indications.

The denial of regulatory approval or the requirement to resubmit any marketing application with additional data or information for AMX0035 in any jurisdiction could mean that we need to delay or even cease operations, and a delay in obtaining such approval would delay commercialization of AMX0035 and adversely impact our ability to generate revenue, our business and our results of operations.

If we are not successful in commercializing AMX0035, or are significantly delayed in doing so, our business will be materially harmed, and we may need to curtail or cease operations. We currently have no drug products approved for sale, and we may never obtain regulatory approval to commercialize AMX0035 in any indication. The research, testing, manufacturing, labeling, approval, sale, marketing and distribution of drug products are subject to extensive regulation by Health Canada, the FDA, the EMA, and other regulatory agencies in the United States and other countries, and such regulations differ from country to country. We are not permitted to market AMX0035 until we receive approval or marketing authorization from the relevant regulatory authority. Health Canada, the FDA, the EMA or any other foreign regulatory agency can delay, limit or deny approval to market AMX0035 for many reasons, including:

our inability to demonstrate to the satisfaction of Health Canada, the FDA, the EMA or any other applicable foreign regulatory agency that AMX0035 is safe and effective for the requested indication;
our inability to gain agreement from applicable foreign regulatory authorities that AMX0035 is appropriate for approval under applicable regulatory pathways;
Health Canada’s, the FDA’s, the EMA’s or any other applicable foreign regulatory agency’s disagreement with the interpretation of data from nonclinical and clinical studies and trials, such as the FDA’s differing interpretations of certain data from our CENTAUR trial and open-label extension, or OLE, as presented at the meeting of the FDA’s Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee, or the Advisory Committee, on March 30, 2022;
our inability to demonstrate that the clinical and other benefits of AMX0035 outweigh any safety or other perceived risks;
our ability to enroll an adequate number of patients in and successfully complete our ongoing global Phase 3 PHOENIX trial;

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Health Canada’s, the FDA’s, the EMA’s or any other applicable foreign regulatory agency’s requirement for additional nonclinical or clinical studies or trials, including studies to satisfy applicable rules governing fixed dose combination products;
Health Canada’s, the FDA’s, the EMA’s or any other applicable foreign regulatory agency’s having differing requirements for the trial protocols used in our clinical trials;
Health Canada’s, the FDA’s, the EMA’s or any other applicable foreign regulatory agency’s non-approval of the formulation, labeling and/or the specifications of AMX0035;
Health Canada’s, the FDA’s, the EMA’s or any other applicable foreign regulatory agency’s failure to accept the manufacturing processes or third-party manufacturers with which we contract; or
the potential for approval policies or regulations of Health Canada, the FDA, the EMA or any other applicable foreign regulatory agencies to significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

Of the large number of drugs in development, only a small percentage successfully complete Health Canada, the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory approval processes and are commercialized.

Even if we eventually complete clinical testing and receive approval of an NDS, NDA, MAA or other foreign marketing authorization for AMX0035, the FDA or the applicable foreign regulatory agency may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly additional clinical trials, which may be required after approval. The FDA or the applicable foreign regulatory agency may also approve AMX0035 for a more limited indication and/or a narrower patient population than we originally request, and Health Canada, the FDA, the EMA or any other applicable foreign regulatory agency may not approve the labeling that we believe is necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of AMX0035. Any delay in obtaining, or inability to obtain, applicable regulatory approval would delay or prevent commercialization of AMX0035 and would materially adversely impact our business and prospects.

We have never commercialized a product and may experience delays or unexpected difficulties in obtaining regulatory approval for AMX0035 for our initial or potential additional indications.

We have never obtained regulatory approval for, or commercialized, a drug. It is possible that Health Canada, the FDA and the EMA may refuse to accept any or all of our submitted or planned NDSs, NDAs and MAAs for substantive review or may conclude after review of our data that our application is insufficient to obtain regulatory approval for AMX0035 or any future product candidates. For example, the FDA or other regulatory authorities may require completion of our ongoing Phase 3 PHOENIX global clinical trial prior to issuing an approval decision for our marketing applications for AMX0035. If Health Canada, the FDA, and the EMA do not approve any of our submitted or planned NDSs, NDAs or MAAs, such regulatory authorities may require that we conduct additional costly clinical, nonclinical or manufacturing validation studies before they will reconsider our applications. Depending on the extent of these or any other required studies, approval of any NDA or other application that we submit may be significantly delayed, possibly for several years, or may require us to expend more resources than we have available. Any failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approvals would prevent or significantly delay us from commercializing AMX0035 for any indication or any other product candidate, generating revenues and achieving and sustaining profitability. It is also possible that additional studies, if performed and completed, may not be considered sufficient by the EMA or FDA to approve any MAA, NDA or other application that we submit. For example, Health Canada has indicated that the CENTAUR trial and the CENTAUR OLE trial are sufficient to support submission of our NDS; however, our NDS remains under review by Health Canada and is subject to further discussion. Therefore, there is no guarantee that Health Canada will determine that the NDS we have submitted for ALS or any future NDS we submit will be sufficient for issuing a marketing approval of AMX0035. If any of these outcomes occur, we may be forced to abandon the development of AMX0035 or any future product candidates, which would materially adversely affect our business and could potentially cause us to cease operations. We face similar risks for our applications in other foreign jurisdictions. In addition, difficulties in obtaining approval of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, AD and the other indications for which we are developing AMX0035, could adversely affect our efforts to seek approval from regulatory authorities for AMX0035 in other jurisdictions or potential indications.

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AMX0035 is a fixed-dose combination drug product and certain regulatory authorities, including the FDA, require a demonstration that each component makes a contribution to the claimed effects in addition to demonstrating that the combination is safe and effective for the intended population.

Under the combination rule, the FDA may not file or approve an NDA for a fixed-dose combination product unless each component of a proposed drug product is shown to make a contribution to the claimed effects and the dosage of each component (amount, frequency, duration) is safe and effective for the intended population. To satisfy these requirements, the FDA typically requires a clinical factorial study, designed to assess the effects attributable to each drug in the combination product. This is particularly true when the ingredients are directed at the same sign or symptom of the disease or condition.

The FDA has accepted a variety of approaches to satisfy the combination rule. In December 2015, the FDA proposed regulations that would allow the agency to waive the requirements of the combination rule for certain drug products under particular circumstances. The FDA has not, to date, finalized these regulations, but the FDA has stated that factorial studies may be unethical (e.g., omitting a drug known to improve survival) or impractical (there may be too many components to conduct a factorial study, meaning the trial cannot be conducted). The FDA has also stated that it may be possible to use other types of clinical and nonclinical data and mechanistic information available to demonstrate the contributions of the individual active ingredients to the effect of the combination.

We submitted existing preclinical and clinical data for sodium phenylbutyrate, or PB, and TURSO (also known as tauroursodeoxycholic acid, or TUDCA), in our NDA submission and the FDA has indicated it will assess the sufficiency of this information during our NDA review period. If the FDA disagrees with our data and rationale, it may not approve our NDA for the treatment of ALS, or may require the successful completion of and data from our ongoing Phase 3 PHOENIX trial before issuing an approval decision. Even if the FDA agrees with our data and rationale, there can be no guarantee that the FDA will issue an approval decision with respect to our NDA submission. Additionally, we will be required to separately satisfy the fixed-dose combination rule for AMX0035 for the treatment of any other indications we pursue in advance of approval. We have only submitted preclinical data to demonstrate the clinical effects of each component in AMX0035 in our NDS, NDA and MAA. There can be no assurance that the FDA, Health Canada or the EMA will conclude that our preclinical data are sufficient for these purposes or, even if they are, that the results from our preclinical studies demonstrate the clinical effects of each component in AMX0035.

Similar requirements may be imposed on us by the EMA in the EU and comparable regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions where we intend to seek regulatory approval. While no similar combination rule formally exists in Canada, Health Canada has informed us that the contributions of the individual drugs will be a focus of review and that it will consider the contributions of each component in connection with its review of our NDS. Health Canada has also requested additional information regarding the contributions of the individual drugs to the overall effect of AMX0035 in connection with the review of our NDS for AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS. While we have provided responses to these information requests, there can be no assurance that Health Canada will find these responses sufficient and, if such responses are not found to be sufficient, whether Health Canada may require additional, potentially lengthy, non-clinical studies or clinical trials to support a marketing approval. If the FDA, the EMA, Health Canada or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities require us to conduct one or more clinical trials, such as a factorial study, the design, duration, and scope of such clinical trials will be decided upon after further discussions with those agencies and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities. As a result, we are unable to predict with certainty the estimated timing or scope of any future clinical trials of AMX0035 we may be required to conduct to satisfy these requirements governing fixed dose combination products in various jurisdictions. Ongoing third-party data in neurology, specifically within ALS, on our products or other products may influence regulatory decision making, including for fixed-dose combinations.

We have concentrated our research and development efforts on the treatment of neurodegenerative and central nervous system, or CNS, disorders, a field that has seen very limited success in product development.

We have focused our research and development efforts on addressing neurodegenerative and CNS disorders. Historically, efforts by pharmaceutical companies in the field of neurodegenerative and CNS disorders have experienced limited successes in product development. The development of neurodegenerative and CNS therapies presents unique challenges, including an imperfect understanding of the biology, the presence of the blood brain barrier, or BBB, that can restrict the flow of drugs to the brain, a frequent lack of translatability of preclinical study results in subsequent clinical trials and dose selection, and the product candidate having an effect that may be too small to be detected using the outcome measures selected in clinical trials or if the outcomes measured do not reach statistical significance. There are few approved therapeutic options available for patients with ALS, AD and other neurodegenerative disorders. Our future success is highly dependent on the successful development of AMX0035 and any future product candidates for treating neurodegenerative and

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CNS disorders. Developing and, if approved, commercializing AMX0035 and any future product candidates for treatment of neurodegenerative and CNS disorders subjects us to a number of challenges, including ensuring that we have selected the optimal doses, executing an appropriate clinical trial to test for efficacy and obtaining regulatory approval from Health Canada, the FDA, the EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities.

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA and other comparable foreign authorities are lengthy, time-consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for AMX0035 or any future product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.

We, and any future collaborators, are not permitted to commercialize, market, promote or sell any product candidate in the United States, Canada, or the EU without obtaining regulatory approval from the FDA, Health Canada, or the EMA, respectively. Regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions may have similar requirements. The time required to obtain approval by the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities is unpredictable, but typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including substantial discretion of such regulatory authorities. In addition, approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions. While we have submitted an NDS to Health Canada, an NDA to the FDA and an MAA to the EMA, to date, we have not submitted any other similar drug approval submissions to comparable foreign regulatory authorities for AMX0035 or any other product candidate. We have not obtained approval of our NDS from Health Canada, our NDA from the FDA or our MAA from the EMA and there can be no assurance that we will receive such approvals. On March 30, 2022, the FDA held a virtual meeting of the Advisory Committee. At that meeting, on the question whether the data from our Phase 2 CENTAUR trial and OLE trial established a conclusion that AMX0035 is effective in the treatment of patients with ALS, the Advisory Committee voted 4 (yes) and 6 (no). Although the FDA considers the recommendations of its advisory committees, the recommendation by the Advisory Committee is non-binding. The final decision regarding approval of a pending NDA is made by the FDA, and we remain committed to pursuing its approval given the pressing need for new treatments for ALS. If we experience delays in obtaining approval or if we fail to obtain approval, the commercial prospects for AMX0035 may be harmed and our ability to generate revenues will be materially impaired.

Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and is inherently uncertain as to outcome. We cannot guarantee that any clinical trials will be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all. The clinical development of AMX0035 for our initial and potential additional indications or any future product candidates is susceptible to the risk of failure inherent at any stage of development, including failure to demonstrate efficacy in a clinical trial or across a broad population of patients, the occurrence of adverse events that are severe or medically or commercially unacceptable, failure to comply with protocols or applicable regulatory requirements, and determination by the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA or any other comparable foreign regulatory authority that a product candidate may not continue development or is not approvable. Additionally, our expenses could increase if we are required by the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA or any other comparable foreign regulatory authority to perform clinical trials in addition to those currently expected, or if there are any delays in completing our clinical trials or the development of AMX0035 in additional indications. It is possible that even if AMX0035 or any future product candidate has a beneficial effect, that effect will not be detected during clinical evaluation as a result of one or more of a variety of factors, including the size, duration, design, measurements, conduct or analysis of our clinical trials. Conversely, as a result of the same factors, our clinical trials may indicate an apparent positive effect of AMX0035 or any future product candidate that is greater than the actual positive effect, if any. Similarly, in our clinical trials we may fail to detect toxicity of or intolerability caused by AMX0035 or any future product candidate, or mistakenly believe that AMX0035 or any future product candidates are toxic or not well-tolerated when that is not in fact the case.

AMX0035 and any of our future product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval for many reasons, including the following:

the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree as to the design or implementation of our clinical trials and may require additional data to support regulatory approvals;
we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities that a product candidate is safe and effective for its proposed indication and, if necessary, that a product candidate and any active components thereof are safe and effective for the proposed indication;
the results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities for approval;

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we may be unable to demonstrate that a product candidate’s clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks;
the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA and comparable authorities in other countries may disagree with our interpretation of data from clinical trials or preclinical studies and may require additional trials or studies to support marketing approval;
the data collected from clinical trials of AMX0035 or any future product candidates may not be sufficient to support the submission of an NDA or other submission to the FDA or to obtain regulatory approval in Canada, the United States, the EU or elsewhere;
the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may find deficiencies with clinical trial sites or fail to approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies; and
the approval policies or regulations of the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

This lengthy approval process as well as the unpredictability of clinical trial results may result in our failing to obtain regulatory approval to market AMX0035 or any future product candidate we develop, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects. There is no assurance that the endpoints and trial designs used for the approval of currently approved drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases will be acceptable for future approvals, including for AMX0035. The FDA, Health Canada, the EMA and other comparable foreign authorities have substantial discretion in the approval process and determining when or whether regulatory approval will be obtained for any product candidate that we develop. Even if we believe the data collected from past or future clinical trials of AMX0035 or any future product candidates are promising, such data may not be sufficient to support approval by the FDA or any other regulatory authority. Although we believe that the results of our CENTAUR trial demonstrate that the administration of AMX0035 resulted in a statistically significant improvement of both long-term function, as measured by the ALSFRS-R score, and survival (based on a longer-term analysis of CENTAUR patients), regulatory authorities may disagree with the interpretation of our data. For example, at the Advisory Committee meeting on March 30, 2022, the FDA noted a number of concerns that, in the FDA’s view, may affect the interpretability of the results from the CENTAUR trial.

The FDA reviews an NDA to determine whether the product is safe and effective for its intended use(s), with the latter determination being made on the basis of substantial evidence. The FDA has interpreted this evidentiary standard to require typically at least two adequate and well-controlled clinical investigations to establish effectiveness of a drug product, although under certain circumstances the FDA has indicated that a single multi-center trial with certain characteristics, or one adequate and well-controlled trial with confirmatory evidence, may also satisfy this standard. Nonetheless, the FDA generally requires two adequate and well controlled Phase 3 clinical trials demonstrating safety and efficacy before granting marketing approval of a drug product. Accordingly, there is no guarantee that the FDA will grant marketing approval to AMX0035 on the basis of the CENTAUR trial. Even though the FDA has accepted our NDA submission for review, the FDA may still issue a Complete Response Letter if they otherwise deem our NDA submission to be deficient for approval purposes, which would delay our plans for commercialization even if we are not required to conduct additional trials.

There can be no assurance that the FDA and other regulatory agencies, including Health Canada and the EMA, will not require additional clinical trials to support an application for the use of AMX0035 in the treatment of ALS or any other indication. This may be the case particularly as these regulatory authorities may consult with one another or as we may be required to apprise the respective agencies of studies we are conducting of AMX0035 for ALS in conjunction with our requests for marketing approval or in response to requests and updates from the respective agency. Thus, Health Canada and the EMA may also find that our CENTAUR trial, together with any data from our global Phase 3 PHOENIX trial that may be provided during or after the review period for these applications, is not sufficient to support our request for marketing authorization in those jurisdictions. It is typically the case not just in the United States, but also in Canada and Europe, that marketing approvals are based on two Phase 3 clinical studies.

In addition, disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic may increase the likelihood that we encounter difficulties or delays in initiating, screening, enrolling, conducting, or completing our ongoing and planned preclinical studies and clinical trials. Clinical site initiation and patient screening and enrollment may be delayed due to prioritization of hospital resources toward the COVID-19 pandemic. Investigators and patients may not be able to comply with clinical trial protocols if quarantines impede patient movement or interrupt healthcare services. Similarly, our ability to recruit and retain patients and principal investigators and site staff who, as healthcare providers, may have heightened exposure to COVID-19, could be limited, which in turn could adversely impact our clinical trial operations. Additionally, we may experience interruption of key clinical trial activities, such as clinical trial site monitoring, due to limitations on travel, quarantines or social distancing

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protocols imposed or recommended by federal or state governments, employers and others in connection with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may face delays in meeting our anticipated timelines for our ongoing and planned clinical trials.

Additionally, as of May 26, 2021, the FDA noted it is continuing to ensure timely reviews of applications for medical products during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in line with its user fee performance goals and conducting mission critical domestic and foreign inspections to ensure compliance of manufacturing facilities with FDA quality standards. However, the FDA may not be able to continue its current pace and approval timelines could be extended, including where a pre-approval inspection or an inspection of clinical sites is required and due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and travel restrictions the FDA is unable to complete such required inspections during the review period. Since March 2020, when foreign and domestic inspections were largely placed on hold due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the FDA has been working to resume routine surveillance, bioresearch monitoring and pre-approval inspections on a prioritized basis. Since April 2021, the FDA has conducted limited inspections and has employed remote interactive evaluations, using risk management methods, to meet user fee commitments and goal dates. Ongoing travel restrictions and other uncertainties continue to impact oversight operations both domestic and abroad and it is unclear when standard operational levels will resume. The FDA is continuing to complete mission-critical work, prioritize other higher-tiered inspectional needs (e.g., for-cause inspections), and carry out surveillance inspections using risk-based approaches for evaluating public health. Should the FDA determine that an inspection is necessary for approval and an inspection cannot be completed during the review cycle due to restrictions on travel, and the FDA does not determine a remote interactive evaluation to be adequate, the agency has stated that it generally intends to issue, depending on the circumstances, a complete response letter or defer action on the application until an inspection can be completed. Further, if there is inadequate information to make a determination on the acceptability of a facility, the FDA may defer action on the application until an inspection can be completed. In 2020 and 2021, a number of companies announced receipt of complete response letters due to the FDA’s inability to complete required inspections for their applications. Regulatory authorities outside the United States may adopt similar restrictions or other policy measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and may experience delays in their regulatory activities. For example, with respect to new sites or facilities in the European Economic Area, or EEA, which have never had a current Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMP, inspection or authorization, the EMA has stated that a distant assessment may be conducted in order to evaluate if the site could be authorized without an on-site pre-approval inspection. If an approval is granted, it should be indicated that the certificate has been granted on the basis of a distant assessment and an on-site inspection should be conducted when circumstances permit. If a cGMP certificate cannot be granted as a result of the distant assessment, a clock-stop in the regulatory approval process will be imposed until an on-site inspection is possible. In addition, even if we were to obtain approval, regulatory authorities may approve AMX0035 or any future product candidates for fewer or more limited indications than we request, may not approve the price we intend to charge for our products, may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials, or may approve a product candidate with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that product candidate. Any of the foregoing scenarios could materially harm the commercial prospects for AMX0035 or any future product candidates.

In Canada, pre-approval GMP inspections are not performed in association with the NDS. Instead, Health Canada relies on a Drug Establishment License, or DEL, to determine the site’s compliance with GMP. DELs can only be held by companies in Canada, and that company becomes the importer of record for the drug. To import, the sites of manufacture, testing and packaging of the Drug Substance and Drug Product are required to be listed on the DEL. Listing is dependent on having an inspection report from a recognized sister regulatory agency such as the EMA or the FDA. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, inspection reports can now be up to three years old. The site of manufacture of the drug product for AMX0035 is in Canada and is subject to routine inspections from Health Canada. These Canadian inspections are currently being performed remotely as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

We may incur unexpected costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of AMX0035 or any future product candidates.

To obtain the requisite regulatory approvals to commercialize any of AMX0035 and any future product candidates, we must demonstrate through extensive preclinical studies and clinical trials that such product candidates are safe and effective in humans. Preclinical and clinical testing are expensive and can take many years to complete, and their outcome is inherently uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process and our future clinical trial results may not be successful.

We may experience delays in completing our clinical trials or preclinical studies and initiating or completing additional clinical trials. We may also experience numerous unforeseen events during our clinical trials that could delay or

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prevent our ability to receive marketing approval or commercialize AMX0035 or any future product candidates we develop, including:

regulators, or institutional review boards, or IRBs, or other reviewing bodies may not authorize us or our investigators to commence a clinical trial, or to conduct or continue a clinical trial at a prospective or specific trial site;
we may not reach agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations, or CROs, and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;
the number of subjects or patients required for clinical trials of AMX0035 in an indication or any future product candidate may be larger than we anticipate, enrollment in these clinical trials may be insufficient or slower than we anticipate, and the number of clinical trials being conducted at any given time may be high and result in fewer available patients for any given clinical trial, or patients may drop out of these clinical trials at a higher rate than we anticipate;
our third-party contractors, including those manufacturing AMX0035 or any future product candidates or conducting clinical trials on our behalf, may fail to comply with regulatory requirements or meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner, or at all;
we may have to amend clinical trial protocol submitted to regulatory authorities or conduct additional studies to reflect changes in regulatory requirements or guidance, which we may be required to resubmit to an IRB and regulatory authorities for re-examination;
unforeseen safety events may occur during the course of a clinical trial and these events may result in the temporary suspension or termination of a clinical trial, or require urgent safety measures or restrictions to protect human subjects during the conduct of a clinical trial;
regulators, IRBs or other reviewing bodies may fail to approve or subsequently find fault with the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we enter into agreement for clinical and commercial supplies, or the supply or quality of AMX0035 or any future product candidate or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of AMX0035 or any future product candidates may be insufficient, inadequate or not available at an acceptable cost, or we may experience interruptions in supply; and
the potential for approval policies or regulations of Health Canada, the FDA, the EMA or any other applicable foreign regulatory agencies to significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

Regulators, IRBs of the institutions in which clinical trials are being conducted or data monitoring committees may suspend or terminate a clinical trial due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a drug, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial.

Negative or inconclusive impressions of the results from our earlier clinical trials of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS or AD, or any other clinical trial or preclinical studies in animals that we have conducted, could mandate repeated or additional preclinical studies or clinical trials and could delay marketing approvals or result in changes to or delays in preclinical studies or clinical trials of AMX0035 in other indications. We do not know whether any clinical trials that we may conduct will demonstrate adequate efficacy and safety to result in regulatory approval to market AMX0035 for our initial or potential additional indications, or any future product candidate. If later stage clinical trials, including our ongoing global Phase 3 PHOENIX trial in ALS, do not produce favorable results with very strong statistical significance, our ability to obtain or maintain any prior-issued regulatory approval for AMX0035 for ALS or potential additional indications, or any future product candidate, may be adversely impacted.

Our failure to successfully initiate and complete clinical trials of AMX0035 for ALS, AD or potential additional indications and to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of AMX0035, including each component thereof, necessary to obtain regulatory approval to market AMX0035 would significantly harm our business. Our product candidate development costs will also increase if we experience delays in testing or regulatory approvals and we may be required to obtain additional funds to complete clinical trials. We cannot assure you that our clinical trials will begin as planned or be completed on schedule, if at all, or that we will not need to restructure our trials after they have begun. Significant clinical trial delays or the

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need for additional data from our clinical trials also could shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize AMX0035 or any future product candidates or allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do and impair our ability to successfully commercialize such product candidates, which may harm our business and results of operations. In addition, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, delays of clinical trials may ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of AMX0035 or any future product candidate.

Even if we complete the necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials, the marketing approval process is expensive, time-consuming and uncertain and may prevent us or any future collaboration partners from obtaining approvals for the commercialization of AMX0035 or maintaining any conditional authorization for our initial or potential additional indications as well as for any future product candidate we develop.

Any product candidate we may develop and the activities associated with its development and commercialization, including its design, testing, manufacture, safety, efficacy, recordkeeping, labeling, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale, and distribution, are subject to comprehensive regulation by Health Canada, the FDA, the EMA and other regulatory authorities in the United States and in other countries. Failure to obtain marketing approval for a product candidate will prevent us from commercializing that product candidate in a given jurisdiction. Although we have invested substantial time and resources to date in pursuit of regulatory approval and toward potential commercialization, we have not received approval to market any product candidates from regulatory authorities in any jurisdiction and it is possible that none of the product candidates we may seek to develop in the future will ever obtain regulatory approval. We have no experience in filing and supporting the applications necessary to gain marketing approvals and expect to rely on third-party CROs or regulatory consultants to assist us in this process. Securing regulatory approval requires the submission of extensive preclinical and clinical data and supporting information to the various regulatory authorities for each therapeutic indication to establish the biologic product candidate’s safety, purity, efficacy and potency. Securing regulatory approval also requires the submission of information about the product manufacturing process to, and inspection of manufacturing facilities by, the relevant regulatory authority. Any product candidates we develop may not be effective, may be only moderately effective, or may prove to have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that may preclude our obtaining marketing approval or prevent or limit commercial use.

The process of obtaining marketing approvals, in the United States, Canada, EU and other foreign jurisdictions, is expensive, may take many years if additional clinical trials are required, if approval is obtained at all, and can vary substantially based upon a variety of factors, including the type, complexity, and novelty of the product candidates involved. Changes in marketing approval policies during the development period, changes in or the enactment of additional statutes or regulations, or changes in regulatory review for each submitted product application, may cause delays in the approval or rejection of an application. The FDA, Health Canada, the EMA and comparable authorities in other countries have substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide during the review process that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other studies. For example, Health Canada and the FDA have requested clarifying information regarding our preclinical and clinical data. In addition, varying interpretations of the data obtained from preclinical and clinical testing could delay, limit, or prevent marketing approval of a product candidate. For example, based on dialogue with the FDA, we made our NDA submission to the FDA without including data from our ongoing Phase 3 PHOENIX trial; however, the FDA or other regulatory authorities may disagree with our data or rationale, or both, and thus may not approve our NDA for the treatment of ALS, or may require completion of our ongoing Phase 3 PHOENIX global clinical trial prior to issuing an approval decision for our marketing applications for AMX0035. Additionally, the FDA has discretion to refer an application for a novel drug or a drug that presents difficult questions of safety or efficacy to an advisory committee. On March 30, 2022, the FDA held a virtual meeting of the Advisory Committee. At that meeting, on the question whether the data from our CENTAUR trial and OLE trial established a conclusion that AMX0035 is effective in the treatment of patients with ALS, the Advisory Committee voted 4 (yes) and 6 (no), which could materially harm the outcome of the FDA’s review of our application and lead to a complete response letter. As such, we may be unable to obtain the marketing approvals we are pursuing and any marketing approvals we ultimately obtain, including any conditional approvals, may be limited or subject to restrictions or post-approval commitments that could render the approved product not commercially viable.

If we experience delays in obtaining approval or if we fail to obtain approval of any product candidates we may develop, the commercial prospects for those product candidates, including for AMX0035 in other indications, may be harmed, and our ability to generate revenues will be materially impaired.

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The results of early-stage clinical trials and preclinical studies may not be predictive of future results. Initial data in our clinical trials may not be indicative of results obtained when these trials are completed or in later stage trials.

The results of preclinical studies may not be predictive of the results of clinical trials, and the results of any early-stage clinical trials we commence may not be predictive of the results of the later-stage clinical trials. In addition, initial data in clinical trials may not be indicative of results obtained when such trials are completed. There can be no assurance that any of our clinical trials will ultimately be successful or support further clinical development of AMX0035 or any future product candidates. In addition, the clinical results seen in the CENTAUR trial may not be repeated in our global Phase 3 PHOENIX clinical trial. There is a high failure rate for drugs and biologics proceeding through clinical trials. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have suffered significant setbacks in clinical development even after achieving promising results in earlier studies, and any such setbacks in our clinical development could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

Additionally, we may utilize an “open-label” clinical trial design. An “open-label” clinical trial is one where both the patient and investigator know whether the patient is receiving the investigational product candidate or either an existing approved drug or placebo. Most open-label clinical trials test only the investigational product candidate and sometimes may do so at different dose levels. Open-label clinical trials are subject to various limitations that may exaggerate any therapeutic effect as patients in open-label clinical trials are aware when they are receiving treatment. Open-label clinical trials may be subject to a “patient bias” where patients perceive their symptoms to have improved merely due to their awareness of receiving an experimental treatment. In addition, open-label clinical trials may be subject to an “investigator bias” where those assessing and reviewing the physiological outcomes of the clinical trials are aware of which patients have received treatment and may interpret the information of the treated group more favorably given this knowledge. The results from an open-label trial may not be predictive of future clinical trial results with AMX0035 or any future product candidates when studied in a controlled environment with a placebo or active control.

Interim topline and preliminary data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time may change as more patient data become available and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.

From time to time, we may publish interim topline or preliminary data from our clinical trials. Interim data from clinical trials that we may complete are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues and more patient data become available. Preliminary or topline results also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the preliminary data we previously published. As a result, interim and preliminary data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available. Adverse differences between preliminary or interim data and final data could significantly harm our reputation and business prospects.

Enrollment and retention of patients in clinical trials is an expensive and time-consuming process and could be made more difficult or rendered impossible by multiple factors outside our control.

Patient enrollment is a significant factor in the timing of clinical trials, and the timing of our clinical trials depends, in part, on the speed at which we can recruit patients to participate in our trials, as well as completion of required follow-up periods. We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials for AMX0035 or any future product candidates if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials to such trial’s conclusion as required by Health Canada, the FDA, the EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Additionally, certain clinical trials for AMX0035 and any future product candidates may be focused on indications with relatively small patient populations, which may further limit enrollment of eligible patients or may result in slower enrollment than we anticipate. The eligibility criteria of our clinical trials, once established, may further limit the pool of available trial participants. For example the number of patients suffering from ALS, is small and, in some cases, has not been established with precision. If the actual number of patients with these diseases is smaller than we anticipate, we may encounter difficulties in enrolling patients in our clinical trials, thereby delaying or preventing development and approval of AMX0035 or any future product candidates. Even once enrolled, we may be unable to retain a sufficient number of patients to complete any of our trials. For example, ALS patients have significant mobility issues, morbidities and other complications that have historically made retention in ALS trials, more challenging. These challenges are also present with many other neurodegenerative indications, including indications for which we may run clinical trials in the future. In the past, we have had discontinuations in our clinical trials, including in our CENTAUR trial and CENTAUR-OLE trial. Discontinuations may occur in the future and

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could result in delays of our clinical trials and affect our ability to enroll additional patients in our clinical trials and impact the integrity of data from our clinical trials.

Patient enrollment and retention in clinical trials depends on many factors, including the size of the patient population, the severity of the disease under investigation, the nature of the trial protocol, the existing body of safety and efficacy data for the product candidate, the number and nature of competing treatments and ongoing clinical trials of or expanded access to competing therapies for the same indication, the proximity of patients to clinical sites, the eligibility criteria for the trial, the ability to adequately monitor patients during a trial, clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the product candidate being studied, and the risk that patients will drop out of a trial before completing all site visits. There are limited patient pools from which to draw in order to complete our clinical trials in a timely and cost-effective manner, including due to the fact that the neurological diseases we target are rare.

Furthermore, our efforts to build relationships with patient communities may not succeed, which could result in delays in patient enrollment in our clinical trials.

Any negative results we may report in clinical trials of AMX0035 or any future product candidate may also make it difficult or impossible to recruit and retain patients in other clinical trials of that same product candidate. Delays or failures in planned patient enrollment or retention may result in increased costs, program delays or both, which could have a harmful effect on our ability to develop AMX0035 in ALS, AD and additional indications and any future product candidates, or could render further development impossible. For example, the impact of public health epidemics, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, may delay or prevent patients from enrolling or from receiving treatment in accordance with the protocol and the required timelines, which could delay our clinical trials, or prevent us or our partners from completing our clinical trials at all, and harm our ability to obtain approval for such product candidate. Further, if patients drop out of our clinical trials, miss scheduled doses or follow-up visits, or otherwise fail to follow clinical trial protocols, whether as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and related illness or actions taken to slow the spread of COVID-19 or otherwise, the integrity of data from our clinical trials may be compromised or not accepted by Health Canada, the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory authorities, which would represent a significant setback for the applicable program. In addition, we may rely on CROs and clinical trial sites to ensure proper and timely conduct of our future clinical trials and, while we intend to enter into agreements governing their services, we will be limited in our ability to compel their actual performance.

Changes in methods of product candidate manufacturing or formulation may result in additional costs or delay.

As product candidates proceed through preclinical studies to late-stage clinical trials towards potential approval and commercialization, it is common that various aspects of the development activities, such as manufacturing methods and formulation, are altered along the way in an effort to optimize processes and results. Any of these changes could cause AMX0035 or any future product candidates to perform differently and affect the results of ongoing clinical trials or other future clinical trials conducted with the materials manufactured using altered processes. For example, if approved, we intend to commercialize a different formulation of AMX0035 from the formulation evaluated in the CENTAUR trial. This change may lead the FDA and other regulatory authorities to delay the approval of our marketing applications until we can demonstrate through additional clinical data that there is comparability in the bioavailability of the two different formulations or may require us to revert to the prior formulation of AMX0035 evaluated in the CENTAUR trial. Should we have to conduct comparability testing to bridge earlier clinical data obtained from AMX0035 produced under earlier manufacturing methods or formulations with the planned commercial formulation, regulatory authorities may disagree on the interpretation of results from this testing. This could delay completion of clinical trials, require the repetition of one or more clinical trials, increase clinical trial costs, delay approval of AMX0035 or any future product candidates and jeopardize our ability to commence sales and generate revenue.

AMX0035 or any future product candidate may cause undesirable side effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent its regulatory approval, limit the commercial profile of an approved label, or result in significant negative consequences following regulatory approval, if obtained.

Undesirable side effects caused by AMX0035, or any future product candidate, could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Results of our clinical trials could reveal a high and unacceptable severity and prevalence of side effects or unexpected characteristics. In clinical trials of AMX0035 to date, AMX0035 has been generally well-tolerated, with most common treatment-emergent adverse events including diarrhea, nausea, constipation, headache, fatigue, proteinuria, and decreased appetite. Health Canada

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has additionally identified hypersalivation as an additional treatment-emergent adverse event in need of being addressed. However, there can be no guarantee that we would observe a similar tolerability profile of AMX0035 in our ongoing global Phase 3 PHOENIX clinical trial or in other future clinical trials. Many compounds that initially showed promise in clinical or earlier stage testing are later found to cause undesirable or unexpected side effects that prevented further development of the compound.

If unacceptable side effects arise in the development of AMX0035 or any future product candidates, we, the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, the IRBs, or independent ethics committees at the institutions in which our trials are conducted, or the independent safety monitoring committee could suspend or terminate our clinical trials or regulatory authorities could order us to cease clinical trials or deny approval of AMX0035 or any future product candidates for any or all targeted indications. Treatment-emergent side effects that are deemed to be drug-related could also affect subject recruitment or the ability of enrolled subjects to complete the trial or result in potential product liability claims. Undesirable side effects in one of our clinical trials for AMX0035 in one indication could adversely affect enrollment in clinical trials, regulatory approval and commercialization of AMX0035 in other indications. Additionally, there may be negative findings regarding components of AMX0035 or future product candidates by other parties. For example, Humanitas Mirasole SpA, or Humanitas, is conducting a Phase 3 clinical trial in the EU to assess the safety and efficacy of TURSO in patients with ALS which may lead to additional findings as to the safety profile of TURSO. Any negative findings by third parties may impact the future approvability or labeling of AMX0035 or other product candidates we may develop. In addition, side effects may not be appropriately recognized or managed by the treating medical staff. We have no relationship with Humanitas. If their Phase 3 clinical trial is successful and TURSO is approved by the FDA or any other regulatory agency, TURSO may become a commercialized product competitive with AMX0035, unless our intellectual property protections and any regulatory exclusivities we possess or may possess in the future prevent such commercialization. Inadequate training in recognizing or managing the potential side effects of AMX0035 or any future product candidates could result in patient injury or death. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

Bitter taste was frequently observed in our clinical trials of AMX0035. While bitter taste, by itself, does not present a safety risk for patients, it may lead to higher levels of patient non-compliance, which could have the effect of reducing the observed efficacy of AMX0035 in our clinical trials, including our ongoing global Phase 3 PHOENIX trial, or limit its commercial adoption.

Moreover, clinical trials of AMX0035 are conducted in carefully defined sets of patients who have agreed to enter into clinical trials. Consequently, it is possible that our clinical trials, or those of any future collaborator, may indicate an apparent positive effect of AMX0035 or a future product candidate that is greater than the actual positive effect, if any, or alternatively fail to identify undesirable side effects.

Finally, AMX0035 is a combination of TURSO and PB. PB has been approved by the FDA and other regulatory authorities for the treatment of patients with certain urea cycle disorders and TURSO has been approved in Italy for diseases of cirrhotic liver disorders such as primary biliary cirrhosis. It is possible that one or more of the active moieties in AMX0035 has also been approved by FDA or other regulatory authorities. Even if AMX0035 were to receive marketing approval or be commercialized, we would continue to be subject to the risks that the FDA, EMA or similar regulatory authorities could revoke approval of PB or TURSO or any active moiety in AMX0035, if applicable, or that efficacy, manufacturing or supply issues could arise with PB or TURSO or any active moiety in AMX0035, if applicable. This could result in our own products being removed from the market or being less commercially successful.

Increasing demand for expanded access to AMX0035 could negatively affect our reputation and harm our business.

We are developing AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, AD and other potential future indications for which there are currently limited or no available therapeutic options. It is possible for individuals or groups to target companies with disruptive social media campaigns related to a request for access to unapproved drugs for patients with significant unmet medical need. If we experience a similar social media campaign regarding our decision to provide or not provide access to AMX0035 or any of our future product candidates under an expanded access policy, our reputation may be negatively affected and our business may be harmed. On March 18, 2022, we launched an FDA-authorized expanded access program in the United States for AMX0035 for certain adults with ALS; however, this expanded access program still may not reach all ALS patients.

Recent media attention to individual patients’ expanded access requests has resulted in the introduction and enactment of legislation at the local and national level, including the recently enacted Accelerating Access to Critical

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Therapies for ALS Act and prior “Right to Try” laws, such as the federal Right to Try Act of 2017, which are intended to allow patients access to unapproved therapies earlier than traditional expanded access programs and the former of which is intended to support research and development related to ALS, specifically. A possible consequence of both activism and legislation in this area may be the need for us to initiate an expanded access program beyond that which we are preparing to submit to the FDA or to make AMX0035 or any future product candidates more widely available sooner than anticipated. We are a small company with limited resources and unanticipated trials or access programs could result in diversion of resources from our primary goals.

In addition, some patients who receive access to drugs prior to their commercial approval through compassionate use, expanded access programs or right to try access have life-threatening illnesses and have exhausted all other available therapies. The risk for SAEs in this patient population is high, which could have a negative impact on the safety profile of AMX0035 or future product candidates if we were to provide them to these patients, which could cause significant delays or an inability to successfully commercialize AMX0035 or future product candidates, which could materially harm our business. If we were to provide patients with AMX0035 under an expanded access program, we may in the future need to restructure or pause any compassionate use and/or expanded access programs in order to perform the controlled clinical trials required for regulatory approval and successful commercialization of AMX0035 or future product candidates, which could prompt adverse publicity or other disruptions related to current or potential participants in such programs.

The increasing use of social media platforms presents new risks and challenges.

Social media is increasingly being used to communicate about our clinical development activities and the diseases AMX0035 is being developed to treat, and we intend to utilize appropriate social media in connection with our commercialization efforts following approval of AMX0035, if any. Social media practices in the biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industries continue to evolve and regulations and regulatory guidance relating to such use are evolving and not always clear. This evolution creates uncertainty and risk of noncompliance with regulations applicable to our business, resulting in potential regulatory actions against us, along with the potential for litigation related to off-label marketing or other prohibited activities and heightened scrutiny by the FDA, the SEC and other regulators. For example, patients may use social media channels to comment on their experience in an ongoing blinded clinical trial or to report an alleged adverse event. If such disclosures occur, there is a risk that trial enrollment may be adversely impacted, that we may fail to monitor and comply with applicable adverse event reporting obligations or that we may not be able to defend our business or the public’s legitimate interests in the face of the political and market pressures generated by social media due to restrictions on what we may say about our product candidates. There is also a risk of inappropriate disclosure of sensitive or confidential information or negative or inaccurate posts or comments about us on any social networking website. In addition, we may encounter attacks on social media regarding our company, management, AMX0035 or future product candidates. If any of these events were to occur or we otherwise fail to comply with applicable regulations, we could incur liability, face regulatory actions or incur other harm to our business.

If we fail to develop and commercialize AMX0035 for additional indications or fail to discover, develop and commercialize other product candidates, we may be unable to grow our business and our ability to achieve our strategic objectives would be impaired.

Although the development and commercialization of AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS is our current primary focus, as part of our longer-term growth strategy, we plan to evaluate AMX0035 in other indications and develop other product candidates. We intend to evaluate internal opportunities from AMX0035 or other potential product candidates, and also may choose to in-license or acquire other product candidates as well as commercial products to treat patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases and CNS or other disorders with significant unmet medical needs and limited treatment options. These other potential product candidates will require additional, time-consuming development efforts prior to commercial sale, including preclinical studies, clinical trials and approval by the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA and/or other applicable foreign regulatory authorities. All product candidates are prone to the risks of failure that are inherent in pharmaceutical product development, including the possibility that the product candidate will not be shown to be sufficiently safe and effective for approval by regulatory authorities. In addition, we cannot assure you that any such products that are approved will be manufactured or produced economically, successfully commercialized or widely accepted in the marketplace or be more effective than other commercially available alternatives.

Research activities to identify product candidates require substantial technical, financial and human resources, whether or not any product candidates are ultimately identified. Our research activities may initially show promise in

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identifying potential product candidates, yet fail to yield product candidates for clinical development for many reasons, including the following:

the research methodology used may not be successful in identifying potential product candidates;
competitors may develop alternatives that render our potential product candidates obsolete;
product candidates that we develop may nevertheless be covered by third parties’ patents or other exclusive rights;
a product candidate may, on further study, be shown to have harmful side effects or other characteristics that indicate it is unlikely to be effective or otherwise does not meet applicable regulatory criteria;
a product candidate may not be capable of being produced in commercial quantities at an acceptable cost, or at all; and
a product candidate may not be accepted as safe and effective by patients, the medical community or third-party payors.

If we are unsuccessful in identifying and developing additional product candidates, our potential for growth and achieving our strategic objectives may be impaired.

We may not be successful in our efforts to expand our pipeline by identifying additional indications and modifications for which to investigate AMX0035 in the future. We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular indication or formulation for AMX0035 and fail to capitalize on product candidates, indications or formulations that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

Because we have limited financial and managerial resources, we are focused on specific indications and modifications for AMX0035. As a result, we may fail to generate additional clinical development opportunities for AMX0035 for a number of reasons, including, that AMX0035 may in certain indications, on further study, be shown to have harmful side effects, limited to no efficacy, or other characteristics that suggest it is unlikely to receive marketing approval and achieve market acceptance in such additional indications.

We plan to conduct several clinical trials for AMX0035 in parallel over the next several years, including multiple clinical trials in patients with ALS and other indications, which may make our decision as to which indication to focus on more difficult. As a result, we may forgo or delay pursuit of opportunities with other indications that could have had greater commercial potential or likelihood of success. In addition, we plan to explore the use of AMX0035 in patients with Wolfram syndrome and other indications. However, we may focus on or pursue one or more of our target indications over other potential indications and such development efforts may not be successful, which would cause us to delay the clinical development and approval of AMX0035. Furthermore, research activities to identify additional indications for AMX0035 require substantial technical, financial, and human resources. We may not successfully develop these additional modifications for chemistry-related, stability-related, or other reasons. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and development activities for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable products.

Additionally, we may pursue in-licenses or acquisitions of development-stage assets or programs, which entails additional risk to us. Identifying, selecting and acquiring promising product candidates requires substantial technical, financial, and human resources expertise. Efforts to do so may not result in the actual acquisition or license of a particular product candidate, potentially resulting in a diversion of our management’s time and the expenditure of our resources with no resulting benefit.

For example, if we are unable to identify programs that ultimately result in approved products, we may spend material amounts of our capital and other resources evaluating, acquiring and developing products that ultimately do not provide a return on our investment.

Competitive products may reduce or eliminate the commercial opportunity for AMX0035 for our current or future indications. If our competitors develop technologies or product candidates more rapidly than we do, or their technologies

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or product candidates are more effective or safer than ours, our ability to develop and successfully commercialize AMX0035 may be adversely affected.

The clinical and commercial landscape for the treatment of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases, including AD is highly competitive and subject to rapid and significant technological change. We face competition with respect to our current indications for AMX0035 and will face competition with respect to any future indications of AMX0035 or other drug candidates that we may seek to develop or commercialize in the future, from major pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies worldwide. For example, Humanitas Mirasole SpA is currently conducting a Phase 3 clinical trial in the EU to assess the safety and efficacy of TURSO in patients with ALS, which, if approved, may be commercialized as a competitor to AMX0035. If this study meets its clinical endpoints, this monotherapy treatment could be approved by the FDA, the EMA and other regulatory authorities, and TURSO may become a commercialized product competitive with AMX0035, unless our intellectual property protections and any regulatory exclusivities we possess or may possess in the future prevent such commercialization. There are also a number of large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that currently market and sell drugs or are pursuing the development of drug candidates for the treatment of the indications that we are pursuing. Potential competitors also include academic institutions, government agencies and other public and private research organizations that conduct research, seek patent protection and establish collaborative arrangements for research, development, manufacturing and commercialization.

Several large pharmaceutical companies market FDA-approved drugs for the treatment of ALS. These drugs include: Riluzole, marketed by Sanofi-Aventis U.S. LLC, and Radicava, marketed by Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma America, Inc. Additionally, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma America, Inc., or MTPA, is developing an oral alternative to Radicava. In the first quarter of 2022 the FDA accepted MTPA’s application for priority review of its oral alternative to Radicava, with a PDUFA date of May 12, 2022. Our potential competitors include pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, such as Biogen, Inc., Orphazyme A/S, Biohaven Pharmaceutical Holding Co Ltd., UCB S.A., Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., specialty pharmaceutical and generic drug companies, academic institutions, government agencies and research institutions.

Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial resources, established presence in the market, expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical and clinical testing, obtaining regulatory approvals and reimbursement and marketing approved products than we do. Accordingly, our competitors may be more successful than we may be in obtaining regulatory approval for therapies and achieving widespread market acceptance. Our competitors’ products may be more effective, or more effectively marketed and sold, than any product candidate we may commercialize and may render AMX0035 or any future product candidates obsolete or non-competitive before we can recover development and commercialization expenses. If AMX0035 is approved for the indications we are currently pursuing, it could compete with a range of therapeutic treatments that are in development. In addition, our competitors may succeed in developing, acquiring or licensing technologies and drug products that are more effective or less costly than AMX0035 or any future product candidates that we may develop, which could render such product candidates obsolete and noncompetitive.

If we obtain approval for AMX0035 or any other future product candidate, we may face competition based on many different factors, including the efficacy, safety and tolerability of our products, the ease with which our products can be administered, the timing and scope of regulatory approvals for these products, the availability and cost of manufacturing, marketing and sales capabilities, price, reimbursement coverage and patent position. Existing and future competing products could present superior treatment alternatives, including being more effective, safer, less expensive or marketed and sold more effectively than any products we may develop. Competitive products may make any products we develop obsolete or noncompetitive before we recover the expense of developing and commercializing our product candidates. Such competitors could also recruit our employees, which could negatively impact our level of expertise and our ability to execute our business plan.

In addition, our competitors may obtain patent protection, regulatory exclusivities or regulatory approval and commercialize products more rapidly than we do, which may impact future approvals or sales of any of our product candidates that receive regulatory approval. If Health Canada, the FDA or the EMA approves the commercial sale of AMX0035 or any future product candidate, we will also be competing with respect to marketing capabilities and manufacturing efficiency. We expect competition among products will be based on product efficacy and safety, the timing and scope of regulatory approvals, availability of supply, marketing and sales capabilities, product price, reimbursement coverage by government and private third-party payors, regulatory exclusivities and patent position. Our profitability and financial position will suffer if our product candidates receive regulatory approval, but cannot compete effectively in the marketplace.

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Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller and other early stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These third parties compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel and establishing clinical trial sites, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our activities.

Off-label use for the treatment of ALS of sodium phenybutyrate, or PB, which is available as a generic drug, along with the potential sale in some jurisdictions of TURSO, which preparations are of unknown identity and may not be legally sold for the treatment of ALS, expose us to additional risks that could reduce or eliminate the commercial opportunity for AMX0035.

We are developing AMX0035 as a combination of TURSO and PB. PB has been approved by the FDA and other regulatory authorities for the treatment of patients with certain urea cycle disorders.

TURSO is being marketed in preparations of unknown identity and without approval for the treatment of ALS in some jurisdictions, including the United States. We face the risk that healthcare professionals may prescribe PB for the treatment of ALS and recommend that patients obtain a commercial preparation of TURSO not labeled or marketed for the treatment of ALS on the belief that this combination could replicate the benefits of AMX0035. Patient-directed treatment with TURSO for ALS may also arise in certain jurisdictions if the Phase 3 clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of TURSO in patients with ALS conducted by Humanitas Mirasole SpA in the EU reports positive results. While these practices are not recommended by the medical community and have not been approved by any regulatory authority, they may nonetheless impact our sales of AMX0035, if approved, and/or public perception of AMX0035 in the United States or abroad.

If the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities approve generic versions of AMX0035 or any future product candidate of ours that receives regulatory approval, or such authorities do not grant our products appropriate periods of non-patent exclusivity before approving generic versions of such products, the sales of such products could be adversely affected.

In the United States, once an NDA is approved, the product covered thereby becomes a “reference listed drug” in the FDA’s publication, “Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations,” or the Orange Book. Manufacturers may seek approval of generic versions of reference listed drugs through submission of abbreviated new drug applications, or ANDAs, in the United States. In support of an ANDA, a generic manufacturer generally must show that its product has the same active ingredient(s), dosage form, strength, route of administration, and adequate labeling as the reference listed drug and that the generic version is bioequivalent to the reference listed drug, meaning, in part, that it is absorbed in the body at the same rate and to the same extent. Generic products may be significantly less costly to bring to market than the reference listed drug and companies that produce generic products are generally able to offer them at lower prices. Moreover, many states allow or require substitution of therapeutically equivalent generic drugs at the pharmacy level even if the branded drug is prescribed. Thus, following the introduction of a generic drug, a significant percentage of the sales of any branded product or reference listed drug may be lost to the generic product.

The FDA may not finally approve an ANDA for a generic product until any applicable period of non-patent exclusivity for the reference listed drug has expired. The FDCA provides a period of five years of non-patent exclusivity for a new drug containing a new chemical entity, or NCE. For the purposes of this provision, an NCE is a drug that contains no active moiety that has previously been approved by the FDA in any other NDA. An active moiety is the molecule or ion responsible for the physiological or pharmacological action of the drug substance. Specifically, in cases where such exclusivity has been granted, an ANDA may not be filed with the FDA until the expiration of five years unless the submission is accompanied by a Paragraph IV certification that a patent covering the listed drug is invalid, unenforceable or will not be infringed by the generic product. In that case, the applicant may submit its application four years following approval of the listed drug and seek to launch its generic product even if we still have patent protection for our product unless an infringement suit is timely filed by the NDA or patent holder in which case the FDA cannot approve the ANDA for 30 months unless a court decision in favor of the generic manufacturer is issued earlier. For fixed dose combination products, the FDA has taken the position that a combination product will be eligible for NCE exclusivity (also known as data exclusivity) if it contains a new active moiety, even if the fixed-combination also contains a drug substance with a previously approved active moiety.

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The FDA may determine, however, that AMX0035 is not eligible for NCE exclusivity, if and when FDA approves an NDA for the product. For example, even under its fixed dose combination product policies, the FDA may find that the active moieties in AMX0035 have been previously approved and, therefore, NCE exclusivity is not available for AMX0035. The regulatory authorities in Canada and Europe may reach the same conclusions as the FDA since the determination of data exclusivity for new drug products in those jurisdictions is very similar to that of the United States.

If any product we develop does not receive five years of NCE exclusivity, the FDA may approve generic versions of such product three years after its date of approval, subject to the requirement that the ANDA applicant certifies to the invalidity or non-infringement of any patents listed for our products in the Orange Book. If an infringement suit is timely filed by the NDA or patent holder, the FDA cannot finally approve the ANDA for 30 months unless a court decision in favor of the generic manufacturer is issued earlier. Three-year exclusivity is given to a drug if it contains an active moiety that has previously been approved, and the NDA includes reports of one or more new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability or bioequivalence studies, that were conducted by or for the applicant and are essential to the approval of the NDA. This form of data exclusivity is known as New Clinical Investigation, or NCI, exclusivity. If AMX0035 is approved with only NCI exclusivity, generic manufacturers may file their ANDAs anytime following approval of AMX0035 and seek to launch their generic products following the expiration of the three year market exclusivity period, even if we still have patent protection for our product.

In addition, in the United States the FDCA provides a period of seven years of orphan drug exclusivity for drugs that treat small patient populations less than 200,000 patients or for which there are more than 200,000 patients but there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making the drug for such disease or condition will be recovered from sales in the United States of such drug. If AMX0035 is granted orphan drug exclusivity, the FDA cannot finally approve a generic or a brand product that contains the same active moiety for the same orphan indication as AMX0035, for a period of seven years, subject to certain exceptions.

In Canada, we were notified that Health Canada preliminarily regards AMX0035 as a New Active Substance. However, a final determination is not made until the date of a potential Notice of Compliance (approval), or NOC. Once defined as a New Active Substance, the drug product is given eight years of data exclusivity. For the first six years, a generic product cannot be filed. After six years, a generic product can be filed, but the NOC cannot be granted for eight years. There is no regulatory provision in Canada that provides orphan drug exclusivity to approved products for rare diseases.

In the EU, innovative medicinal products (including both small molecules and biological medicinal products), sometimes referred to as new active substances, qualify for eight years of data exclusivity upon marketing authorization and an additional two years of market exclusivity. The data exclusivity, if granted, prevents generic or biosimilar applicants from referencing the innovator’s preclinical and clinical trial data contained in the dossier of the reference product when applying for a generic or biosimilar marketing authorization, for a period of eight years from the date on which the reference product was first authorized in the EU. During the additional two-year period of market exclusivity, a generic or biosimilar marketing authorization can be submitted, and the innovator’s data may be referenced, but no generic or biosimilar product can be marketed until the expiration of the market exclusivity period. This 10-year marketing exclusivity period may be extended to 11 years if, during the first eight of those 10 years, the marketing authorization holder obtains an approval for one or more new therapeutic indications that bring significant clinical benefits compared with existing therapies. However, even if an innovative medicinal product gains the prescribed period of data exclusivity, another company may market another version of the product if such company obtained a marketing authorization based on an application with a complete and independent data package of pharmaceutical tests, preclinical tests and clinical trials.

Competition that AMX0035 or any future products, if approved, may face from generic versions of such products could negatively impact our future revenue, profitability and cash flows and substantially limit our ability to obtain a return on our investments in those product candidates.

Any of our AMX0035 or any future product candidates for which we, or any future collaborators, obtain regulatory approval in the future will be subject to ongoing obligations and continued regulatory review, which may result in significant additional expense. If approved, AMX0035 and any future product candidates could be subject to post-marketing restrictions or withdrawal from the market and we, or any future collaborators, may be subject to substantial penalties if we, or they, fail to comply with regulatory requirements or if we, or they, experience unanticipated problems with our products following approval.

AMX0035 or any future product candidates for which we, or any future collaborators, obtain regulatory approval, as well as the manufacturing processes, post-approval studies, labeling, advertising and promotional activities for such product,

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among other things, will be subject to ongoing requirements of and review by the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA and other applicable regulatory authorities. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration and listing requirements, requirements relating to manufacturing, quality control, quality assurance and corresponding maintenance of records and documents, requirements regarding the distribution of samples to physicians and recordkeeping. For certain commercial prescription drug products, manufacturers and other parties involved in the supply chain must also meet chain of distribution requirements and build electronic, interoperable systems for product tracking and tracing and for notifying the FDA of counterfeit, diverted, stolen and intentionally adulterated products or other products that are otherwise unfit for distribution in the United States. We and our contract manufacturers will also be subject to user fees and periodic inspection by regulatory authorities to monitor compliance with these requirements and the terms of any product approval we may obtain. Even if regulatory approval of a product candidate is granted, the approval may be subject to limitations on the indications or uses for which the product may be marketed or to the conditions of approval, including the requirement in the United States to implement a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, or REMS.

The FDA, Health Canada, the EMA and other regulatory authorities may also impose requirements for costly post-marketing studies or clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the safety or efficacy of a product. For example, the FDA and other agencies, including the Department of Justice, closely regulate and monitor the post-approval marketing and promotion of products to ensure that they are manufactured, marketed and distributed only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved labeling. Regulatory authorities impose stringent restrictions on manufacturers’ communications regarding off-label use. However, companies generally may share truthful and not misleading information that is otherwise consistent with a product’s approved labeling. If we, or any future collaborators, do not market AMX0035 or any of our future product candidates for which we, or they, receive regulatory approval for only their approved indications, we, or they, may be subject to warnings or enforcement action for off-label marketing if it is alleged that we are doing so. Violation of laws and regulations relating to the promotion and advertising of prescription drugs may lead to investigations or allegations of violations of federal and state health care fraud and abuse laws and state consumer protection laws, including the False Claims Act and any comparable foreign laws. In the EU, the direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription-only medicinal products is prohibited. Violations of the rules governing the promotion of medicinal products in the EU could be penalized by administrative measures, fines and imprisonment. These laws may further limit or restrict the advertising and promotion of our products to the general public, and may also impose limitations on our promotional activities with health care professionals.

Post-marketing requirements in Canada are similar to those in the United States. If an NDS is approved, Health Canada will require that we submit a Risk Management Plan, or RMP. Health Canada may, as part of the RMP, require that we use a registry or limited distribution channels or conduct additional clinical studies. Standard pharmacovigilance activities will also be required for any approved NDS. Any labelling changes or changes in the product supply chain would need to be submitted and approved by Health Canada. Advertising will be monitored, and will routinely be reviewed by the Pharmaceutical Advertising Advisory Board. Reimbursement in Canada is complex and will require submissions to both public and private payors to gain access to prescription drug formulary lists. In addition, if there are any patents associated with AMX0035, the product will be subject to the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board, or PMPRB.

In addition, later discovery of previously unknown adverse events or other problems with our products or their manufacturers or manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may yield various results, including:

restrictions on the manufacturing of such products;
restrictions on the labeling or marketing of such products;
restrictions on product distribution or use;
requirements to conduct post-marketing studies or clinical trials;
warning letters or untitled letters;
withdrawal of the products from the market;
refusal to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications that we submit;
recall of products;
restrictions on coverage by third-party payors;
fines, restitution or disgorgement of profits or revenues;

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exclusion from federal health care programs such as Medicare and Medicaid;
suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals;
refusal to permit the import or export of products;
product seizure; or
injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

Obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of AMX0035 or any future product candidates in one jurisdiction does not mean that we will be successful in obtaining regulatory approval of those product candidates in other jurisdictions.

Obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of AMX0035 and any future product candidates in one jurisdiction does not guarantee that we will be able to obtain or maintain regulatory approval in any other jurisdiction, while a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one jurisdiction may have a negative effect on the regulatory approval process in others. For example, even if a regulatory authority, such as Health Canada, grants marketing approval of AMX0035, comparable regulatory authorities in the United States, EU and other foreign jurisdictions must also approve the manufacturing, marketing and promotion of AMX0035 in those countries. Approval procedures vary among jurisdictions and can involve requirements and administrative review periods different from, and greater than, those in Canada, the United States or the EU including additional preclinical studies or clinical trials, as clinical trials conducted in one jurisdiction may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions. In many jurisdictions outside the United States including Canada and certain jurisdictions in the EU, a product candidate must be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that jurisdiction. In some cases, the price that we intend to charge for our products is also subject to approval.

We have submitted marketing applications in the United States, Canada, and the EU. Regulatory authorities in jurisdictions outside of the United States have requirements for approval of product candidates with which we must comply prior to marketing in those jurisdictions and such regulatory requirements can vary widely from country to country. Obtaining other regulatory approvals and compliance with other regulatory requirements could result in significant delays, difficulties and costs for us and could require additional preclinical studies or clinical trials, which could be costly and time-consuming and could delay or prevent the introduction of our products in certain countries. The foreign regulatory approval process involves all of the risks associated with FDA approval. We do not have any product candidates approved for sale in any jurisdiction, including international markets, and we do not have experience in obtaining regulatory approval in either domestic or international markets. If we fail to comply with the regulatory requirements in international markets and/or obtain and maintain applicable marketing approvals, our target market will be reduced and our ability to realize the full market potential of AMX0035 or any future product candidates will be harmed.

Even though we have obtained orphan drug designation for AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS in the United States and the EU and for the treatment of Wolfram syndrome in the United States, we may not be able to obtain or maintain the benefits associated with orphan drug status, including market exclusivity.

Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States and the EU, may designate drugs for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a drug as an orphan drug if it is intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 people in the United States, or a patient population of greater than 200,000 people in the United States, but for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing the drug will be recovered from sales in the United States. In the EU, the EMA Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products grants orphan drug designation to promote the development of products that are intended for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of a life-threatening or chronically debilitating condition affecting not more than five in 10,000 people in the EU. Additionally, designation is granted for products intended for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of a life-threatening or chronically debilitating condition when, without incentives, it is unlikely that sales of the drug in the EU would be sufficient to justify the necessary investment in developing the drug or biologic product. In either case, the applicant for orphan designation must also demonstrate that no satisfactory method of diagnosis, prevention, or treatment for the condition has been authorized (or, if such a method exists, the new product would be a significant benefit to those affected compared to the product available).

In September 2017, the FDA granted orphan drug status to AMX0035 for the treatment of patients with ALS in the United States, and in June 2020, the EMA granted orphan drug status to AMX0035 for the treatment of patients with ALS in the EU. We also received orphan drug status for AMX0035 for the treatment of patients with Wolfram syndrome in the

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United States in November 2020. Generally, if a drug with an orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first marketing approval for the indication for which it has such designation, the drug may be entitled to a period of marketing exclusivity, which precludes the FDA or the EMA from approving another marketing application for the same drug for that time period. Another drug may receive marketing approval prior to AMX0035. The applicable period is seven years in the United States and ten years in the EU, which may be extended by six months and two years, respectively, in the case of product candidates that have complied with the respective regulatory agency’s agreed upon pediatric investigation plan. The exclusivity period in the EU can be reduced to six years if a drug no longer meets the criteria for orphan drug designation or if the drug is sufficiently profitable so that market exclusivity is no longer justified. In the EU, during the ten-year period of orphan marketing exclusivity, neither the competent authorities of the EU Member States, the EMA, or the European Commission are permitted to accept applications or grant marketing authorization for other similar medicinal products. A “similar medicinal product” is defined as a medicinal product containing a similar active substance or substances as contained in an authorized orphan medicinal product, and which is intended for the same therapeutic indication. Orphan drug exclusivity may be lost if the FDA or the EMA determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the drug to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition. In addition, even after a drug is granted orphan exclusivity and approved, the FDA and the EMA can subsequently approve another drug for the same condition before the expiration of the seven-year (or ten-year in the EU) exclusivity period if the FDA or the EMA concludes that the later drug is clinically superior in that it is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care. In addition, if an orphan designated product receives marketing approval for an indication broader than or different from what is designated, such product may not be entitled to orphan exclusivity. Even though the FDA has granted orphan drug designation to AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS and Wolfram syndrome, if we receive approval for AMX0035 for a modified or different indication, our current orphan designations may not provide us with exclusivity.

Orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in, or shorten the duration of, the regulatory review or approval process. Also, regulatory approval for any product candidate may be withdrawn, and other product candidates may obtain approval before us and receive orphan drug exclusivity, which could block us from entering the market.

Even if we obtain orphan drug exclusivity for AMX0035, that exclusivity may not effectively protect us from competition because different drugs can be approved for the same condition before the expiration of the orphan drug exclusivity period. For example, even if orphan drug exclusivity is granted to AMX0035 if and when it is approved, that exclusivity may not prevent the approval of TURSO by the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory authorities as a monotherapy treatment for ALS if those regulatory agencies determine that TURSO is a different drug product from AMX0035. In addition, the regulatory authorities may find that this monotherapy treatment is clinically superior to our fixed dose product and approve it even if we are granted orphan drug exclusivity. U.S. lawmakers have also recently raised the possibility that regulatory or legislative changes might need to be made to the Orphan Drug Act to foster competition. This includes the introduction of legislation that, if adopted into law, would require us to demonstrate to the FDA that AMX0035 would be economically unviable when facing competition to maintain our exclusivity.

We may pursue orphan drug designation for AMX0035 for the treatment of additional indications. The incidence and prevalence of the target patient populations for these indications will be based on our estimates and third-party data. If the market opportunity for these target populations is larger than we estimate, we may be unable to receive orphan drug designation. Additionally, if orphan drug designation is granted, we may be unable to maintain any benefits associated with orphan drug designation, including market exclusivity.

Periodically, we make estimates regarding the incidence and prevalence of target patient populations based on various third-party sources and internally generated analysis. Our estimates may be inaccurate or based on imprecise data. As described above, under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a drug as an orphan drug if it is intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 people in the United States, or a patient population of greater than 200,000 people in the United States, but for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing the drug will be recovered from sales in the United States. If our incidence or prevalence estimates for future indications for which we may seek orphan drug designation are incorrect, we may be unable to receive orphan drug designation.

Even if the FDA grants orphan drug designation for AMX0035 for other indications, exclusive marketing rights in the United States may be limited if we seek FDA marketing approval for an indication broader than the orphan designated indication. Additionally, any product candidate that initially receives orphan drug status designation, may lose such designation if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantities of the product to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition. In

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addition, others may obtain orphan drug status for products addressing the same diseases or conditions as products we are developing, thus limiting our ability to compete in the markets addressing such diseases or conditions for a significant period of time. As a result, our business and prospects could suffer.

We received priority review designation for AMX0035 in the United States and may in the future pursue priority review designation for other product candidates that we may develop, but we might not receive such future designations, and priority review designations may not lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process.

If the FDA determines that a product candidate offers a treatment for a serious condition and, if approved, the product would provide a significant improvement in safety or effectiveness, the FDA may designate the product candidate for priority review. A priority review designation means that the goal for the FDA to review an application is six months, rather than the standard review period of ten months. We have received priority review for AMX0035 and may in the future request priority review designation for any future product candidates, however, we cannot assume that any application for future indications of AMX0035 or any other product candidate we may develop will meet the criteria for that designation. The FDA has broad discretion with respect to whether or not to grant priority review status to a product candidate, so even if we believe a particular product candidate is eligible for such designation or status, the FDA may decide not to grant it. Moreover, a priority review designation does not necessarily mean a faster development or regulatory review or approval process or necessarily confer any advantage with respect to approval compared to standard FDA review and approval. Receiving priority review from the FDA does not guarantee approval within the six-month review cycle or at all.

We may seek Fast Track Designation by the FDA for a product candidate that we develop, and we may be unsuccessful. If we are successful, the designation may not actually lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process.

We may seek Fast Track Designation for future product candidates we develop. If a product is intended for the treatment of a serious or life-threatening condition and preclinical or clinical data demonstrate the potential to address an unmet medical need for this condition, the product sponsor may apply for Fast Track Designation. The FDA has broad discretion whether or not to grant this designation, so even if we believe a particular product candidate is eligible for this designation, we cannot assure you that the FDA would decide to grant it. Even if we do receive Fast Track Designation, we may not experience a faster development process, review or approval compared to conventional FDA procedures. The FDA may rescind the Fast Track Designation if it believes that the designation is no longer supported by data from our clinical development activities.

We may seek Breakthrough Therapy Designation by the FDA for a product candidate that we develop, and we may be unsuccessful. If we are successful, the designation may not lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process, and it does not increase the likelihood that our product candidates will receive marketing approval.

We may seek Breakthrough Therapy Designation for any product candidate that we develop. A breakthrough therapy is defined as a drug that is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition, and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over currently approved therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints, such as substantial treatment effects observed early in clinical development. For drugs that have been designated as breakthrough therapies, interaction and communication between the FDA and the sponsor of the trial can help to identify the most efficient path for clinical development while minimizing the number of patients placed in ineffective control regimens. Drugs designated as breakthrough therapies by the FDA are also eligible for accelerated approval and priority review.

Designation as a breakthrough therapy is within the discretion of the FDA. Accordingly, even if we believe a product candidate we develop meets the criteria for designation as a breakthrough therapy, the FDA may disagree and instead determine not to make such designation. In any event, the receipt of Breakthrough Therapy Designation for a product candidate may not result in a faster development process, review or approval compared to drugs considered for approval under conventional FDA procedures and does not assure ultimate approval by the FDA. In addition, even if any product candidate we develop qualifies as a breakthrough therapy, the FDA may later decide that the drug no longer meets the conditions for qualification and rescind the designation.

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Product liability lawsuits against us or any of our future collaborators could divert our resources and attention, cause us to incur substantial liabilities and limit commercialization of AMX0035 or any future product candidates.

We are exposed to potential product liability and professional indemnity risks that are inherent in the research, development, manufacturing, marketing and use of pharmaceutical products. Currently, we have no products that have been approved for commercial sale; however, the use of AMX0035 by us and any collaborators in clinical trials, and the sale of AMX0035, if approved, in the future, may expose us to liability claims. Product liability claims may be brought against us or our partners by participants enrolled in our clinical trials, patients, health care providers, pharmaceutical companies, our collaborators or others using, administering or selling any of our future approved products. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against any such claims, we may incur substantial liabilities or be required to limit commercialization of AMX0035 or any future product candidates. Regardless of the merits or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

decreased demand for any of our future approved products;
injury to our reputation;
withdrawal of clinical trial participants;
termination of clinical trial sites or entire trial programs;
significant litigation costs, including with respect to potential class action lawsuits;
substantial monetary awards to, or costly settlements with, patients or other claimants;
product recalls or a change in the indications for which they may be used;
loss of revenue;
diversion of management and scientific resources from our business operations; and
the inability to commercialize AMX0035 or any future product candidates.

Although the clinical trial process is designed to identify and assess potential side effects, clinical development does not always fully characterize the safety and efficacy profile of a new drug, and it is always possible that a drug, even after regulatory approval, may exhibit unforeseen side effects. If AMX0035 was to cause adverse side effects during clinical trials or after approval, we may be exposed to substantial liabilities. Physicians and patients may not comply with any warnings that identify known potential adverse effects and patients who should not use AMX0035 or any of our future product candidates. If any of our current or future product candidates, including AMX0035, are approved for commercial sale, we will be highly dependent upon consumer perceptions of us and the safety and quality of our products. We could be adversely affected if we are subject to negative publicity associated with illness or other adverse effects resulting from patients’ use or misuse of our products or any similar products distributed by other companies.

Although we maintain product liability insurance coverage in the amount of up to $5.0 million in the aggregate, including clinical trial liability, this insurance may not fully cover potential liabilities that we may incur. The cost of any product liability litigation or other proceeding, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial. We will need to increase our insurance coverage if we commercialize AMX0035 or any future product candidate that receives regulatory approval. In addition, insurance coverage is becoming increasingly expensive. If we are unable to maintain sufficient insurance coverage at an acceptable cost or to otherwise protect against potential product liability claims, it could prevent or inhibit the development and commercial production and sale of AMX0035 or any future product candidates, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Even if we, or any future collaborators, obtain regulatory approvals for AMX0035 or any future product candidate, the terms of approvals and ongoing regulation of our products may limit how we manufacture and market our products, which could impair our ability to generate revenue.

Once regulatory approval has been granted, an approved product and its manufacturer and marketer are subject to ongoing review and extensive regulation. We, and any future collaborators, must therefore comply with requirements concerning advertising and promotion for AMX0035 or any future product candidate for which we or they obtain regulatory approval. Promotional communications with respect to prescription drugs are subject to a variety of legal and regulatory restrictions and must be consistent with the information in the product’s approved labeling. Thus, we and any future collaborators will not be able to promote any products we develop for indications or uses for which they are not approved.

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In addition, manufacturers of approved products and those manufacturers’ facilities are required to comply with extensive FDA, Health Canada and EMA requirements, including ensuring that quality control and manufacturing procedures conform to current Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMPs, which include requirements relating to quality control and quality assurance as well as the corresponding maintenance of records and documentation and reporting requirements. We, our contract manufacturers, any future collaborators and their contract manufacturers could be subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA, Health Canada and the EMA to monitor and ensure compliance with cGMPs. Despite our efforts to inspect and verify regulatory compliance, one or more of our third-party manufacturing vendors may be found on regulatory inspection by the FDA, the EMA or other authorities to be not in compliance with cGMP regulations, which may result in shutdown of the third-party vendor or invalidation of drug product lots or processes. In some cases, a product recall may be warranted or required, which would materially affect our ability to supply and market our drug products.

Accordingly, assuming we, or any future collaborators, receive regulatory approval for AMX0035 or one or more future product candidates, we, and any future collaborators, and our and their contract manufacturers will continue to expend time, money and effort in all areas of regulatory compliance, including manufacturing, production, product surveillance and quality control.

If we, and any future collaborators, are not able to comply with post-approval regulatory requirements, we, and any future collaborators, could have the regulatory approvals for AMX0035 or any future products withdrawn by regulatory authorities and our, or any future collaborators’, ability to market any future products could be limited, which could adversely affect our ability to achieve or sustain profitability. Further, the cost of compliance with post-approval regulations may have a negative effect on our operating results and financial condition.

Laws and regulations governing any international operations we expect to have in the future may preclude us from developing, manufacturing and selling certain products outside of the United States and will require us to develop and implement costly compliance programs.

We expect to engage in operations outside of the United States, including in Canada and in the EU initially, as well as other potential jurisdictions, and we must dedicate additional resources to comply with numerous laws and regulations in each jurisdiction in which we plan to operate. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, prohibits any U.S. individual or business from paying, offering, authorizing payment or offering of anything of value, directly or indirectly, to any foreign official, political party or candidate for the purpose of influencing any act or decision of the foreign entity in order to assist the individual or business in obtaining or retaining business. The FCPA also obligates companies whose securities are listed in the United States to comply with certain accounting provisions requiring us to maintain books and records that accurately and fairly reflect all transactions of the corporation, including international subsidiaries, and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls for international operations.

Compliance with the FCPA is expensive and difficult, particularly in countries in which corruption is a recognized problem. In addition, the FCPA presents particular challenges in the pharmaceutical industry, because, in many countries, hospitals are operated by the government, and doctors and other hospital employees are considered foreign officials. Certain payments to hospitals in connection with clinical trials and other work have been deemed to be improper payments to government officials and have led to FCPA enforcement actions.

Various laws, regulations and executive orders, including export control and trade sanctions laws, also restrict the use and dissemination outside of the United States, or the sharing with certain non-U.S. nationals, of information classified for national security purposes, as well as certain products and technical data relating to those products. If we expand our presence outside of the United States, it will require us to dedicate additional resources to comply with these laws, and these laws may preclude us from developing, manufacturing, or selling certain products and product candidates outside of the United States, which could limit our growth potential and increase our development costs.

The failure to comply with laws governing international business practices may result in substantial civil and criminal penalties and suspension or debarment from government contracting. The Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, also may suspend or bar issuers from trading securities on U.S. exchanges for violations of the FCPA’s accounting provisions.

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If we fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could harm our business.

We are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures and the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. From time to time and in the future, our operations may involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological materials, and may also produce hazardous waste products. Even if we contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and waste products, we cannot completely eliminate the risk of contamination or injury resulting from these materials. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from the use or disposal of our hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties for failure to comply with such laws and regulations.

We maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees, but this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. However, we do not maintain insurance for environmental liability or toxic tort claims that may be asserted against us.

In addition, we may incur substantial costs in order to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. Environmental laws and regulations may impair our research, development or production efforts. In addition, failure to comply with these laws and regulations may result in substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions.

Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties

We may seek to establish collaborations and, if we are not able to establish them on commercially reasonable terms, we may have to alter our development and commercialization plans.

The advancement of AMX0035, and any future product candidates and development programs or activities, as well as the potential commercialization of AMX0035 and any future product candidates will require substantial additional cash to fund expenses. For some indications of AMX0035 or future product candidates, we may decide to collaborate with additional pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies with respect to development and potential commercialization. Likely collaborators may include large and mid-size pharmaceutical companies, regional and national pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies. In addition, if we are able to obtain regulatory approval for product candidates from foreign regulatory authorities, we may enter into collaborations with international biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies for the commercialization of such product candidates.

We face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborators. Whether we reach a definitive agreement for a collaboration will depend, among other things, upon our assessment of the collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of a number of factors. Those factors may include the potential differentiation of our product candidate from competing product candidates, design or results of clinical trials, the likelihood of approval by Health Canada, the FDA, the EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities and the regulatory pathway for any such approval, the potential market for the product candidate, the costs and complexities of manufacturing and delivering the product to patients and the potential of competing products. The collaborator may also consider alternative product candidates or technologies for similar indications that may be available for collaboration and whether such a collaboration could be more attractive than the one with us for our product candidate. If we elect to increase our expenditures to fund development or commercialization activities on our own, we may need to obtain additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. If we do not have sufficient funds, we may not be able to further develop AMX0035 or any future product candidates or bring them to market and generate product revenue.

Collaborations are complex and time-consuming to negotiate and document. Further, there have been a significant number of recent business combinations among large pharmaceutical companies that have resulted in a reduced number of potential future collaborators. Any collaboration agreements that we enter into in the future may contain restrictions on our ability to enter into potential collaborations or to otherwise develop specified product candidates. We may not be able to negotiate collaborations on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to do so, we may have to curtail the development of the product candidate for which we are seeking to collaborate, reduce or delay its development program or one or more of our other development programs or activities, delay its potential commercialization or reduce the scope of any sales or marketing activities, or increase our expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense.

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We may in the future enter into collaborations with third parties for the development and commercialization of AMX0035 or any future product candidates, and our prospects with respect to those product candidates will depend in significant part on the success of those collaborations.

We may rely on collaborations for the development and commercialization of AMX0035 and any future product candidates. For example, we may utilize a variety of distribution, collaboration and other marketing arrangements with one or more third parties to facilitate commercialization of AMX0035. Our likely collaborators for any distribution, development, sales, marketing, licensing or broader collaboration arrangements include large and mid-size pharmaceutical companies, regional and national pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies. If we enter into such collaborations, we may have limited control over the amount and timing of resources that our collaborators dedicate to the development or commercialization of AMX0035 or any future product candidates. Our ability to generate revenues from these arrangements will depend on any future collaborators’ abilities to successfully perform the functions assigned to them in these arrangements. In addition, any future collaborators may have the right to abandon research or development projects and terminate applicable agreements, including funding obligations, prior to or upon the expiration of the agreed upon terms.

Collaborations involving AMX0035 and any future product candidates pose a number of risks, including the following:

collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to these collaborations;
collaborators may not perform their obligations as expected;
collaborators may not pursue development and commercialization of AMX0035 or any future product candidates or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs, based on clinical trial results, changes in the collaborators’ strategic focus or available funding or external factors, such as an acquisition, that divert resources or create competing priorities;
collaborators may delay clinical trials, provide insufficient funding for a clinical trial program, stop a clinical trial or abandon a product candidate, repeat or conduct new clinical trials or require a new formulation of a product candidate for clinical testing;
collaborators could independently develop, or develop with third parties, products that compete directly or indirectly with AMX0035 or any of our future product candidates;
a collaborator with marketing and distribution rights to one or more products may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of such product or products;
disagreements with collaborators, including disagreements over proprietary rights, including trade secrets and intellectual property rights, contract interpretation, or the preferred course of development might cause delays or termination of the research, development or commercialization of product candidates, might lead to additional responsibilities for us with respect to product candidates, or might result in litigation or arbitration, any of which would be time-consuming and expensive;
collaborators may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our proprietary information in such a way as to invite litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our intellectual property or proprietary information or expose us to potential litigation;
collaborators may infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties, which may expose us to litigation and potential liability; and
collaborations may be terminated and, if terminated, may result in a need for additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of the applicable product candidates.

Collaboration agreements may not lead to development or commercialization of product candidates in the most efficient manner or at all. If any future collaborator of ours is involved in a business combination, it could decide to delay, diminish or terminate the development or commercialization of any product candidate licensed to it by us.

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We rely on third parties to assist in conducting our clinical trials. If they do not perform satisfactorily, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval or commercialize AMX0035 or any future product candidates, or such approval or commercialization may be delayed, and our business could be substantially harmed.

We have relied upon and plan to continue to rely on third parties, such as CROs, clinical data management organizations, medical institutions and clinical investigators, to conduct our clinical trials and expect to rely on these third parties to conduct clinical trials of any future product candidate that we develop. Any of these third parties may terminate their engagements with us under certain circumstances. We may not be able to enter into alternative arrangements or do so on commercially reasonable terms. In addition, there is a natural transition period when a new CRO begins work. As a result, delays may occur, which could negatively impact our ability to meet our expected clinical development timelines and harm our business, financial condition and prospects. Clinical trials involve multiple clinical sites, vendors and other third parties and we are dependent on these vendors to ensure appropriate study conduct, statistical analysis and randomization. Errors or deviations they make in any of these activities could impact the usefulness and interpretability of clinical trial results by regulatory authorities. For example, at the Advisory Committee meeting on March 30, 2022, the FDA noted a number of concerns that, in the FDA’s view, may affect the interpretability of the results from the CENTAUR trial. Clinical trials from time to time have deviations where a protocol or standard operating procedure is not perfectly carried out and where corrective actions are taken. While we may perceive these events as low risk, our perception of risk and appropriate corrective actions may differ from that of the regulators’ view. Deviations from protocols or standard operating procedures during studies could result in negative regulatory opinions and outcomes.

Further, although our reliance on these third parties for clinical development activities limits our control over these activities, we remain responsible for ensuring that each of our trials is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal and regulatory requirements and scientific standards. Moreover, the FDA, the EMA and competent authorities of the EU Member States require us to comply with Good Clinical Practices, or GCPs, for conducting, recording and reporting the results of clinical trials to assure that data and reported results are credible and accurate and that the rights, integrity and confidentiality of trial participants are protected. The FDA enforces these GCPs through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators, clinical trial sites and IRBs. If we or our third-party contractors fail to comply with applicable GCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA or the EMA may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving AMX0035 or any future product candidates, which would delay the regulatory approval process. We cannot be certain that, upon inspection, the FDA or the EMA will determine that any of our clinical trials comply with GCPs. For example, our clinical trial sites and investigators have in the past and may in the future engage in protocol deviations which could impact the overall interpretability of the outcomes of our clinical trials. We are also required to register certain clinical trials and post the results of completed clinical trials on a government-sponsored database, ClinicalTrials.gov, within certain timeframes. Failure to do so can result in fines, adverse publicity and civil and criminal sanctions.

Furthermore, the third parties conducting clinical trials on our behalf are not our employees, and except for remedies available to us under our agreements with such contractors, we cannot control whether or not they devote sufficient time, skill and resources to our ongoing development activities. These contractors may also have relationships with other commercial entities, including our competitors, for whom they may also be conducting clinical trials or other drug development activities, which could impede their ability to devote appropriate time to our clinical activities. If these third parties, including clinical investigators, do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or conduct our clinical trials in accordance with regulatory requirements or our stated protocols, we may not be able to obtain, or may be delayed in obtaining, clinical data necessary for regulatory approvals for AMX0035 or any future product candidates. If that occurs, we will not be able to, or may be delayed in our efforts to, successfully commercialize AMX0035 or any future product candidates. In such an event, our financial results and the commercial prospects for AMX0035 or any future product candidates that we seek to develop could be harmed, our costs could increase and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed, impaired or foreclosed.

In addition, quarantines, shelter-in-place, and similar government orders, or the perception that such orders, shutdowns or other restrictions on the conduct of business operations could occur, related to the COVID-19 pandemic or other infectious diseases could impact personnel at our CROs, which could disrupt our clinical timelines, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations.

We also rely on other third parties to store and distribute drug supplies for our clinical trials. Any performance failure on the part of our distributors could delay clinical development or regulatory approval of AMX0035 or any future product candidates or commercialization of any resulting products, producing additional losses and depriving us of potential product revenue.

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Our use of third parties to manufacture AMX0035 may increase the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of AMX0035, products, or necessary quantities of such materials on time or at an acceptable cost.

We do not own or operate manufacturing facilities for the production of clinical or commercial quantities of AMX0035, and we currently lack the resources and the capabilities to do so. As a result, we currently rely on third parties for the manufacture and supply of the active pharmaceutical ingredients, or APIs, in AMX0035, and for the blending and packaging of AMX0035. Our current strategy is to outsource all manufacturing of AMX0035 and any future product candidates to third parties.

We currently engage third-party manufacturers to provide the APIs of AMX0035 and for the final drug product formulation of AMX0035 that is being used in our clinical trials and for expanded access and we engage separate third-parties for the blending and packaging of finished clinical materials. We must be able to demonstrate comparability of drug substance across suppliers along with stability data across suppliers. We currently rely on a single manufacturer to supply one of our APIs and a separate manufacturer to supply the other. Although we believe that there are several potential alternative manufacturers who could manufacture each of the APIs in AMX0035, we may incur added costs and delays in identifying and qualifying any such replacement. In addition, we typically order raw materials and services on a purchase order basis and do not enter into long-term dedicated capacity or minimum supply arrangements with any commercial manufacturer. Moreover, the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic impacts our ability to procure sufficient supplies for the development of AMX0035, and any future products and product candidates will depend on the severity and duration of the spread of the virus, and the actions undertaken to contain COVID-19 or treat its effects. There is no assurance that we will be able to timely secure needed supply arrangements on satisfactory terms, or at all. Our failure to secure these arrangements as needed could have a material adverse effect on our ability to complete the development of AMX0035 or any future product candidates or, to commercialize them, if approved. We may be unable to conclude agreements for commercial supply with third-party manufacturers, or may be unable to do so on acceptable terms. There may be difficulties in scaling up to commercial quantities and formulation of AMX0035, and the costs of manufacturing could be prohibitive.

Even if we are able to establish and maintain arrangements with third-party manufacturers, reliance on third-party manufacturers entails additional risks, including:

the failure of the third-party manufacturer to comply with applicable regulatory requirements and reliance on third-parties for manufacturing process development, regulatory compliance and quality assurance;
manufacturing delays if our third-party manufacturers give greater priority to the supply of other products over AMX0035 or any future product candidates or otherwise do not satisfactorily perform according to the terms of the agreement between us;
limitations on supply availability resulting from capacity and scheduling constraints of third-parties;
the possible breach of manufacturing agreements by third-parties because of factors beyond our control;
the possible termination or non-renewal of the manufacturing agreements by a third-party, at a time that is costly or inconvenient to us; and
the possible misappropriation of our proprietary information, including our trade secrets and know-how.

If we do not maintain our key manufacturing relationships, or if any of our contract manufacturers fail to perform their obligations, we may fail to find replacement manufacturers or develop our own manufacturing capabilities, which could delay or impair our ability to obtain regulatory approval for our products. If we do find replacement manufacturers, we may not be able to enter into agreements with them on terms and conditions favorable to us and there could be a substantial delay before new facilities could be qualified and registered with the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA and other foreign regulatory authorities.

Any change in manufacturer may also involve changes in manufacturing procedures and processes, which could require that we conduct bridging studies between our prior clinical supply used in our clinical trials and that of any new manufacturer. In addition, we will need to verify that any new manufacturing process will produce our product candidate according to the specifications previously submitted to the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA or another regulatory authority. We may be unsuccessful in demonstrating the comparability of clinical supplies which could require the conduct of additional clinical trials.

In some cases, the technical skills required to manufacture AMX0035, or any future products or product candidates may be unique or proprietary to the original contract manufacturer and we may have difficulty, or there may be contractual

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restrictions prohibiting us from, transferring such skills to a back-up or alternate supplier, or we may be unable to transfer such skills at all. Furthermore, a contract manufacturer may possess or acquire technology related to the manufacture of AMX0035 or any future product candidate that such contract manufacturer owns independently. This would increase our reliance on such contract manufacturer or require us to obtain a license from such contract manufacturer in order to have another contract manufacturer manufacture AMX0035 or any future product candidates. If AMX0035 for any of our initial or potential additional indications or any future product candidate is approved by any regulatory agency, we intend to utilize arrangements with third-party contract manufacturers for the commercial production of those products. This process is difficult and time consuming and we may face competition for access to manufacturing facilities as there are a limited number of contract manufacturers operating under cGMPs that are capable of manufacturing AMX0035 or any future product candidates. Consequently, we may not be able to reach agreement with third-party manufacturers on satisfactory terms, which could delay our commercialization.

Our failure, or the failure of our third-party manufacturers, to comply with applicable regulations could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including clinical holds, fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, seizures or voluntary recalls of AMX0035 or any future product candidates, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly affect supplies of AMX0035 or any future product candidates. The facilities used by our contract manufacturers to manufacture AMX0035 or any future product candidates must be evaluated by the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA and certain other foreign regulatory authorities. We do not control the manufacturing process of, and are completely dependent on, our contract manufacturing partners for compliance with cGMPs. If our contract manufacturers cannot successfully manufacture material that conforms to our specifications and the strict regulatory requirements of the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA or others, we may not be able to secure and/or maintain regulatory approval for our product manufactured at these facilities. In addition, we have no control over the ability of our contract manufacturers to maintain adequate quality control, quality assurance and qualified personnel. If the FDA, Health Canada, the EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authority finds deficiencies or does not approve these facilities for the manufacture of AMX0035 or any future product candidates, or if it withdraws any such approval in the future, we may need to find alternative manufacturing facilities, which would significantly impact our ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval for or market AMX0035 or any future product candidates, if approved. Furthermore, if we are required to change contract manufacturers, we will be required to verify that the new contract manufacturer maintains facilities and procedures that comply with quality standards and with all applicable regulations, which could result in further costs and delays. Contract manufacturers may face manufacturing or quality control problems causing drug substance production and shipment delays or a situation where the contractor may not be able to maintain compliance with the applicable cGMP requirements. Any failure to comply with cGMP requirements or other FDA, Health Canada, EMA and comparable foreign regulatory requirements could adversely affect our clinical research activities and our ability to develop AMX0035 or any future product candidates and market our products, if approved.

The FDA, Health Canada, the EMA and other foreign regulatory authorities require manufacturers to register manufacturing facilities. The FDA, Health Canada, the EMA and corresponding foreign regulators also inspect these facilities to confirm compliance with cGMPs. Contract manufacturers may face manufacturing or quality control problems causing drug substance production and shipment delays or a situation where the contractor may not be able to maintain compliance with the applicable cGMP requirements. Any failure to comply with cGMP requirements or other FDA, Health Canada, EMA and comparable foreign regulatory requirements could adversely affect our clinical research activities and our ability to develop AMX0035 or any future product candidates and market our products following approval.

If any third-party manufacturer of AMX0035 or any future product candidates is unable to increase the scale of its production of such product candidates, and/or increase the product yield of its manufacturing, then our costs to manufacture the product may increase and commercialization may be delayed.

In order to produce sufficient quantities to meet the demand for clinical trials and expanded access and, if approved, subsequent commercialization of AMX0035, or any future product candidates that we may develop, our third-party manufacturers will be required to increase their production and optimize their manufacturing processes while maintaining the quality of the product. The transition to larger scale production could prove difficult. In addition, if our third party manufacturers are not able to optimize their manufacturing processes to increase the product yield for AMX0035 or any future product candidates, or if they are unable to produce increased amounts of such product candidates while maintaining the quality of the product, then we may not be able to meet the demands of clinical trials or market demands, which could decrease our ability to generate profits and have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operation.

Three vaccines for COVID-19 were granted Emergency Use Authorization by the FDA in late 2020 and early 2021, and two of those later received marketing approval from the FDA. Additional vaccines may be authorized or approved in the

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future. The resultant demand for vaccines and potential for manufacturing facilities and materials to be commandeered under the Defense Production Act of 1950, or equivalent foreign legislation, is having rippling effects across the contract manufacturing industry, which may make it more difficult to obtain materials or manufacturing slots for the production needed for our clinical trials and, if approved, our future commercial supply, which could lead to delays in our trials and commercial distribution.

We may need to maintain licenses for active ingredients from third parties to develop and commercialize AMX0035 or a future product candidate, which could increase our development costs and delay our ability to commercialize such product candidate.

Should we decide to use API in any of AMX0035 or any future product candidates that are proprietary to one or more third parties, we would need to maintain licenses to those active ingredients from those third parties. If we are unable to gain or continue to access rights to these active ingredients prior to conducting preclinical toxicology studies intended to support clinical trials, we may need to develop alternate product candidates from these programs by either accessing or developing alternate active ingredients, resulting in increased development costs and delays in commercialization of these product candidates. If we are unable to gain or maintain continued access rights to the desired active ingredients on commercially reasonable terms or develop suitable alternate active ingredients, we may not be able to commercialize product candidates from these programs.

Risks Related to Commercialization of AMX0035 or Future Product Candidates

We currently have limited sales and marketing capabilities. If we are unable to establish effective sales and marketing capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to market and sell AMX0035 and any future product candidates that may be approved, we may not be successful in commercializing AMX0035 and any future product candidates if and when approved, and we may be unable to generate any product revenue.

If approved, we currently intend to seek to commercialize AMX0035 in Canada, the United States and the EU directly with specialized teams, given the relative rarity of certain of the indications we are targeting. We are currently building the marketing and sales team for the marketing, sales and distribution of AMX0035 and any future product candidates, if approved. In order to commercialize AMX0035 for the treatment of ALS, AD and other indications, if approved, or any of our future product candidates that may be approved, we must build, on a territory-by-territory basis, marketing, sales, distribution, managerial and other capabilities or make arrangements with third parties to perform these services, and we may not be successful in doing so.

There are risks involved with both establishing our own sales and marketing capabilities and entering into arrangements with third parties to perform these services. For example, our current efforts toward recruiting and training a commercial organization is expensive and time consuming and could delay any product launch. If the commercial launch of a product candidate for which we recruit a sales force and establish marketing capabilities is delayed or does not occur for any reason, we would have prematurely or unnecessarily incurred these commercialization expenses. If we fail to gain approval or if for any reason a potential commercial launch is otherwise delayed, we would not realize the benefits of any pre-commercial activity expenditures made to date. This may be costly and our investment would be lost if we cannot retain or reposition our sales and marketing personnel.

Factors that may inhibit our efforts to commercialize AMX0035 or any future product candidates, if approved, on our own include:

the inability to recruit, train and retain adequate numbers of effective sales and marketing personnel;
the inability of sales personnel to obtain access to physicians to prescribe AMX0035 or any future product that we may develop;
any views or opinions expressed by ALS or AD community organizations about the efficacy of AMX0035;
the lack of complementary treatments to be offered by sales personnel, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage relative to companies with more extensive product lines;
the availability of adequate coverage by and reimbursement from third-party payors; and
unforeseen costs and expenses associated with creating an independent sales and marketing organization.

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If we enter into arrangements with third parties to perform sales, marketing and distribution services, our product revenue or profitability from these revenue streams is likely to be lower than if we were to market and sell any product candidates that we develop ourselves. In addition, we may not be successful in entering into arrangements with third parties to sell and market AMX0035 or any of our future product candidates or may be unable to do so on terms that are favorable to us. We likely will have little control over such third parties, and any of them may fail to devote the necessary resources and attention to sell and market AMX0035 or any future product candidates effectively. If we do not establish sales and marketing capabilities successfully, either on our own or in collaboration with third parties, we may not be successful in commercializing AMX0035 or any future product candidates.

Our efforts to educate the ALS, AD and other neurodegenerative disease medical communities and payors on the benefits of AMX0035 or any future product candidates may require significant resources given the relative rarity of certain of the indications we are targeting, and may never be successful. Such efforts may require more resources than are typically required due to the complexity and uniqueness of AMX0035 or any future product candidates, and the indications we are targeting. Even if AMX0035 or any future product candidates are approved, if we are unable to successfully market our products successfully, we will not be able to generate significant revenues from such products, if approved.

If we are unable to expand our marketing and distribution capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to market and sell any of AMX0035 or future product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval, we will be unable to generate any product revenue.

To successfully commercialize any products that may result from our development activities, we need to continue to expand our marketing and distribution capabilities, either on our own or with others. The development of our own marketing and distribution effort is, and will continue to be, expensive and time-consuming and could delay any product launch. Moreover, we cannot be certain that we will be able to develop this capability successfully. We may enter into collaborations regarding any approved product candidates with other entities to utilize their established marketing and distribution capabilities, however, we may be unable to enter into such agreements on favorable terms, if at all. If any future collaborators do not commit sufficient resources to commercialize AMX0035 or any future product candidates, or we are unable to develop the necessary capabilities on our own, we will be unable to generate sufficient product revenue to sustain our business. We compete with many companies that currently have extensive, experienced and well-funded sales, distribution and marketing operations to recruit, hire, train and retain marketing and sales personnel. We also face competition in our search for third parties to assist us with the sales and marketing efforts of AMX0035 and any future product candidates, if approved. Without an internal team or the support of a third-party to perform marketing and sales functions, we may be unable to compete successfully against these more established companies.

The market for AMX0035 for ALS, AD and other neurodegenerative diseases and for any future product candidates we may develop may be smaller than we expect.

We focus our research and product development on treatments of neurodegenerative diseases. We base our market opportunity estimates on a variety of factors, including our estimates of the number of people who have these diseases, the potential scope of our approved product labels, the subset of people with these diseases who have the potential to benefit from treatment with AMX0035 or any future product candidates, various pricing scenarios, and our understanding of reimbursement policies for rare diseases in particular countries. These estimates are based on many assumptions and may prove incorrect, and new studies may reduce the estimated incidence or prevalence of these diseases. Estimating market opportunities can be particularly challenging for ultra-rare indications, such as the ones we currently address, as epidemiological data is often more limited than for more prevalent indications and can require additional assumptions to assess potential patient populations. For example, as we advance AMX0035 towards commercialization, learn more about market dynamics and engage with regulators on potential marketing approvals, our view of our products’ initial potential market opportunity will become more refined. We expect the approved label to initially be directed to a narrower patient population with the opportunity to expand the label upon submission of additional clinical data. For example, we are now initially focused primarily on the annual incidence of ALS. This means the initial market opportunity for AMX0035 and any future product candidates may be smaller than the total addressable market opportunity that could be achieved over time. If we are unable to advance AMX0035 or any future product candidates with attractive market opportunities, our future product revenues may be smaller than anticipated, and our business may suffer. Patient identification efforts also influence the ability to address a patient population. If efforts in patient identification are unsuccessful or less impactful than anticipated, for instance, because of a lack of diagnostic initiatives, inadequate disease awareness among healthcare professionals, or otherwise, we may not address the entirety of the opportunity we are seeking. As a result, patients may be difficult to identify and access, the addressable patient population in Canada, the United States, the EU and elsewhere may turn out to be lower

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than expected, or patients may not be otherwise amenable to treatment with our products, all of which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Even if AMX0035 or any future product candidate of ours receives regulatory approval, it may fail to achieve the degree of market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community necessary for commercial success, in which case we may not generate significant revenues or become profitable.

We have never commercialized a product, and even if AMX0035 for the treatment of any indication, or any future product candidate of ours, is approved by the appropriate regulatory authorities for marketing and sale, it may nonetheless fail to gain sufficient market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community. Physicians may be reluctant to take their patients off their current medications and switch their treatment regimen to AMX0035. Further, patients often acclimate to the treatment regime they are currently taking and do not want to switch unless their physicians recommend switching products or are required to switch due to lack of coverage and adequate reimbursement. In addition, even if we are able to demonstrate our product candidates’ safety and efficacy to Health Canada, the FDA, the EMA and other regulators, safety or efficacy concerns in the medical community may hinder market acceptance.

Efforts to educate the medical community and third-party payors on the benefits of our current and any future product candidates may require significant resources, including management time and financial resources, and may not be successful. If AMX0035 or any future product candidate is approved but does not achieve an adequate level of market acceptance, we may not generate significant revenues and we may not become profitable. The degree of market acceptance of AMX0035 and any future product candidates, if approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including:

the efficacy and safety of the product;
the potential advantages of the product compared to competitive therapies and our ability to successfully publicize these advantages or highlight them in any marketing materials;
the prevalence and severity of any side effects;
whether the product is designated under physician treatment guidelines as a first-, second- or third-line therapy;
our ability, or the ability of any future collaborators, to offer the product for sale at competitive prices;
the product’s convenience and ease of administration compared to alternative treatments;
the willingness of the target patient population to try, and of physicians to prescribe, the product;
limitations or warnings, including distribution or use restrictions contained in the product’s approved labeling;
the strength of sales, marketing and distribution support;
changes in the standard of care for the targeted indications for the product; and
availability and adequacy of coverage and reimbursement from government payors, managed care plans and other third-party payors.

Any failure by AMX0035 or any other potential product candidate of ours that obtains regulatory approval to achieve market acceptance or commercial success would adversely affect our business prospects.

Healthcare insurance coverage and reimbursement may be limited or unavailable for AMX0035 and any future product candidates, if approved, which could make it difficult for us to sell any product candidates or therapies profitably.

The success of AMX0035 and any future product candidates, if approved, depends on the availability of adequate coverage and reimbursement from third-party payors. Because AMX0035 and any future product candidates represent new approaches to the treatment of the diseases they target, we cannot be sure that coverage and reimbursement will be available for, or accurately estimate the potential revenue from, AMX0035 and any future product candidates or for any product that we may develop. If we are unable to obtain adequate levels of reimbursement, our ability to successfully market and sell any such product candidates will be adversely affected. The manner and level at which reimbursement is provided for services related to any current or future product candidates we may develop (e.g., for the administration of our product candidate to patients) is also important. Inadequate reimbursement for such services may lead to physician and payor resistance and

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adversely affect our ability to market or sell AMX0035 or any future product candidates we may develop. In addition, we may need to develop new reimbursement models, in order to realize adequate value. Payors may not be able or willing to adopt such new models and patients may be unable to afford that portion of the cost that such models may require them to bear. If we determine such new models are necessary, but we are unsuccessful in developing them, or if payors do not adopt such models, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected. See section entitled “Business – Government Regulation – Coverage and Reimbursement.”

Patients who are provided medical treatment for their conditions generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with their treatment. Adequate coverage and reimbursement from governmental healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and commercial payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, are critical to new product acceptance. Government authorities and other third-party payors decide which drugs and treatments they will cover and the reimbursement amount. Coverage and reimbursement by a third-party payor may depend upon a number of factors.

In the United States, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for products exists among third-party payors. As a result, obtaining coverage and reimbursement approval of a product from a government or other third-party payor is a time consuming and costly process that could require us to provide to each payor supporting scientific, clinical and cost-effectiveness data for the use of our products on a payor-by-payor basis, with no assurance that coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors will be obtained. There is significant uncertainty related to the insurance coverage and reimbursement of newly approved products. In the United States, the principal decisions about reimbursement for new medicines are typically made by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, as CMS decides whether and to what extent a new medicine will be covered and reimbursed under Medicare. Private payors tend to follow CMS to a substantial degree. Even if we obtain coverage for a given product, the resulting reimbursement payment rates might not be adequate for us to achieve or sustain profitability or may require co-payments that patients find unacceptably high. Future coverage and reimbursement may be subject to increased restrictions, such as prior authorization requirements, both in the United States and in international markets. Orphan drugs are typically placed on the highest cost-sharing tier and a substantial percentage are subject to prior authorization requirements. Reimbursement agencies in the EU may be more conservative than CMS.

Outside the United States, international operations are generally subject to extensive governmental price controls and other market regulations, and we believe the increasing emphasis on cost-containment initiatives in Canada, the EU and other countries has and will continue to put pressure on the pricing and usage of drug products such as AMX0035 and any future product candidates we may develop, if approved. In many countries, particularly the countries of the EU, the prices of medical products are subject to varying price control mechanisms as part of national health systems. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after the receipt of marketing approval for a product. For example, in Canada, price negotiations with provincial authorities can take more than 18 months before agreed-upon pricing and reimbursement rates. Prior to these negotiations, a review by a body known as the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, or CADTH, and l’Institut national d’excellence en santé et en services sociaux, or INESS, are conducted, and for patented medicines, the PMPRB also has jurisdiction. Such discussions may also result in additional studies and rationale required for combination products before reimbursement will be granted. As a result, we might obtain marketing approval for a product in a particular country, but then be subject to price regulations that delay or might even prevent our commercial launch of the product, possibly for lengthy periods of time. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our product candidate to other available therapies. In general, the prices of products under such systems are substantially lower than in the United States. Other countries allow companies to fix their own prices for products but monitor and control company profits. Additional foreign price controls or other changes in pricing regulation could restrict the amount that we are able to charge for product candidates. Accordingly, in markets outside the United States, the reimbursement for AMX0035 and any future product candidates we may develop may be reduced compared with the United States and may be insufficient to generate commercially reasonable revenues and profits.

Additionally, third-party payors may not cover, or provide adequate reimbursement for, long-term follow-up evaluations required following the use of product candidates. Patients are unlikely to use AMX0035 or any future product candidates unless coverage is provided and reimbursement is adequate to cover a significant portion of the cost of AMX0035 or any future product candidates. Because AMX0035 and any future product candidates may have a higher cost of goods than conventional therapies and may require long-term follow-up evaluations, the risk that coverage and reimbursement rates may be inadequate for us to achieve profitability may be greater. There is significant uncertainty related to insurance coverage and reimbursement of newly approved products. It is difficult to predict at this time what third-party payors will decide with respect to the coverage and reimbursement for AMX0035 and any future product candidates.

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Moreover, increasing efforts by governmental and other third-party payors in Canada, the EU, the United States and other foreign jurisdictions to cap or reduce healthcare costs may cause such organizations to limit both coverage and the level of reimbursement for newly approved products and, as a result, they may not cover or provide adequate payment for AMX0035 or any future product candidates. There has been increasing legislative and enforcement interest in the United States with respect to specialty drug pricing practices. We expect to experience pricing pressures in connection with the sale of AMX0035 or any future product candidates due to the trend toward managed healthcare, the increasing influence of health maintenance organizations, cost containment initiatives and additional legislative changes.

Ongoing healthcare legislative and regulatory reform measures may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Changes in regulations, statutes or the interpretation of existing regulations could impact our business in the future by requiring, for example: (i) changes to our manufacturing arrangements; (ii) additions or modifications to product labeling; (iii) the recall or discontinuation of our products; or (iv) additional record-keeping requirements. If any such changes were to be imposed, they could adversely affect the operation of our business. See section entitled “Business – Government Regulation – Current and Future U.S. Healthcare Reform Legislation.”

In the United States, there have been and continue to be a number of legislative initiatives to contain healthcare costs.

These laws and future state and federal healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding and otherwise affect the prices we may obtain for AMX0035 or any future product candidates for which we may obtain regulatory approval or the frequency with which any such product candidate is prescribed or used. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability or commercialize our product candidates.

Moreover, increasing efforts by governmental and third-party payors in the United States and abroad to cap or reduce healthcare costs may cause such organizations to limit both coverage and the level of reimbursement for newly approved products and, as a result, they may not cover or provide adequate payment for our product candidates. There has been increasing legislative and enforcement interest in the United States with respect to specialty drug pricing practices. Specifically, there have been several recent U.S. Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, reduce the cost of prescription drugs under Medicare, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drugs.

Additional state and federal healthcare reform measures are expected to be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in reduced demand for certain pharmaceutical products or additional pricing pressures.

While some of these and other proposed measures may require additional authorization to become effective, Congress and the Biden administration have each indicated that it will continue to seek new legislative and/or administrative measures to control drug costs.

Governments outside the United States may impose strict price controls, which may adversely affect our revenues, if any.

In some countries, including Canada and certain Member States of the EU, the pricing of prescription drugs is, in part, subject to governmental control. Additional countries may adopt similar approaches to the pricing of prescription drugs. In such countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after receipt of regulatory approval for a product. The EU provides options for the EU Member States to restrict the range of drug products for which their national health insurance systems provide reimbursement and to control the prices of medicinal products for human use. EU Member States may approve a specific price for a product or it may instead adopt a system of direct or indirect controls on the profitability of the company placing the product on the market. Other EU Member States allow companies to fix their own prices for drug products, but monitor and control prescription volumes and issue guidance to physicians to limit prescriptions. In addition, there can be considerable pressure by governments and other stakeholders on prices and reimbursement levels, including as part of cost containment measures. Political, economic and regulatory developments may further complicate pricing negotiations, and pricing negotiations may continue after coverage and reimbursement have been

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obtained. Reference pricing used by various countries and parallel distribution, or arbitrage between low-priced and high-priced countries, can further reduce prices. In some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical study or other studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of AMX0035 or any future product candidates to other available therapies in order to obtain or maintain reimbursement or pricing approval, which is time-consuming and costly. We cannot be sure that such prices and reimbursement will be acceptable to us. Publication of discounts by third-party payors or authorities may lead to further pressure on the prices or reimbursement levels within the country of publication and other countries. If pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels or if reimbursement of our products is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, our revenues from sales by us or our strategic partners and the potential profitability of AMX0035 or any future product candidates in those countries would be negatively affected.

Our relationships with healthcare providers and physicians and third-party payors may be subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings.

Healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors in the United States and elsewhere play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of pharmaceutical products. Arrangements with third-party payors and customers can expose pharmaceutical manufacturers to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, including, without limitation, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and the federal False Claims Act, or FCA, which may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which such companies conduct research, sell, market and distribute pharmaceutical products. In particular, the promotion, sales and marketing of healthcare items and services, as well as certain business arrangements in the healthcare industry, are subject to extensive laws designed to prevent fraud, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, structuring and commission(s), certain customer incentive programs and other business arrangements generally. Activities subject to these laws also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of patient recruitment for clinical trials. See section entitled “Business – Government Regulation - Other U.S. Healthcare Laws.”

The distribution of pharmaceutical products is subject to additional requirements and regulations, including extensive recordkeeping, licensing, storage and security requirements intended to prevent the unauthorized sale of pharmaceutical products. Ensuring that our internal operations and future business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices do not comply with current or future statutes, regulations, agency guidance or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. The scope and enforcement of each of these laws is uncertain and subject to rapid change in the current environment of healthcare reform. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental laws and regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant penalties, including civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from U.S. government-funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, or similar programs in other countries or jurisdictions, disgorgement, imprisonment, contractual damages, reputational harm, diminished profits, additional reporting requirements and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws and the delay, reduction, termination or restructuring of our operations. Further, defending against any such actions can be costly and time-consuming, and may require significant financial and personnel resources. Therefore, even if we successfully defend against any such actions that may be brought against us, our business may be impaired. If any of the physicians or other providers or entities with whom we expect to do business is found to not comply with applicable laws, they may be subject to significant criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from government-funded healthcare programs and imprisonment. If any of the above occur, it could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.

Compliance with global privacy and data security requirements could result in additional costs and liabilities to us or inhibit our ability to collect and process data globally, and the failure to comply with such requirements could subject us to significant fines and penalties, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

The regulatory framework for the collection, use, safeguarding, sharing, transfer and other information processing worldwide is rapidly evolving and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. Globally, virtually every jurisdiction in which we operate has established its own data security and privacy frameworks with which we must comply. For example, the collection, use, disclosure, transfer, or other processing of personal data regarding individuals in the EU, including personal health data, is subject to the EU General Data Protection Regulation, or the GDPR, which took effect

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across all member states of the EEA in May 2018. The GDPR is wide-ranging in scope and imposes numerous requirements on companies that process personal data, including requirements relating to processing health and other sensitive data, obtaining the consent of the individuals to whom the personal data relates, providing information to individuals regarding data processing activities, implementing safeguards to protect the security and confidentiality of personal data, providing notification of data breaches, and taking certain measures when engaging third-party processors. The GDPR increases our obligations with respect to clinical trials conducted in the EEA by expanding the definition of personal data to include coded data and requiring changes to informed consent practices and more detailed notices for clinical trial subjects and investigators. In addition, the GDPR also imposes strict rules on the transfer of personal data to countries outside the EU, including the United States, and, as a result, increases the scrutiny that clinical trial sites located in the EEA should apply to transfers of personal data from such sites to countries that are considered to lack an adequate level of data protection, such as the United States. The GDPR also permits data protection authorities to require the destruction of improperly gathered or used personal information and or impose substantial fines for violations of the GDPR, which can be up to four percent of global revenues or 20 million Euros, whichever is greater and it also confers a private right of action on data subjects and consumer associations to lodge complaints with supervisory authorities, seek judicial remedies, and obtain compensation for damages resulting from violations of the GDPR. In addition, the GDPR provides that EU member states may make their own further laws and regulations limiting the processing of personal data, including genetic, biometric or health data.

Similar actions are either in place or underway in the United States. There are a broad variety of data protection laws that are applicable to our activities, and a wide range of enforcement agencies at both the state and federal levels that can review companies for privacy and data security concerns based on general consumer protection laws. The Federal Trade Commission and state Attorneys General are all aggressive in reviewing consumers’ privacy and data security protections. New laws also are being considered at both the state and federal levels. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act—which went into effect on January 1, 2020—is creating similar risks and obligations as those created by GDPR, though the Act does exempt certain information collected as part of a clinical trial subject to the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (the Common Rule). Many other states are considering similar legislation. A broad range of legislative measures also has been introduced at the federal level. Accordingly, failure to comply with federal and state laws (both those currently in effect and future legislation) regarding the privacy and security of personal information could expose us to fines and penalties under such laws. There also is the threat of consumer class actions related to these laws and the overall protection of personal data. Even if we are not determined to have violated these laws, government investigations into these issues typically require the expenditure of significant resources and generate negative publicity, which could harm our reputation and our business.

Given the breadth and depth of changes in data protection obligations, preparing for and complying with these requirements is rigorous and time-intensive and requires significant resources and a review of our technologies, systems and practices, as well as those of any third-party collaborators, service providers, contractors or consultants that process or transfer personal data collected in the EU. The GDPR and other changes in laws or regulations associated with the enhanced protection of certain types of sensitive data, such as healthcare data or other personal information from our clinical trials, could require us to change our business practices and put in place additional compliance mechanisms, may interrupt or delay our development, regulatory and commercialization activities and increase our cost of doing business, and could lead to government enforcement actions, private litigation and significant fines and penalties against us and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

Our commercial success depends on our ability to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology.

Our commercial success depends in large part on our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property rights protection through patents, trademarks and trade secrets in the United States and other countries with respect to our proprietary product candidate, AMX0035, and any future proprietary product candidates. If we do not adequately protect our intellectual property rights, competitors may be able to erode, negate or preempt any competitive advantage we may have, which could harm our business and ability to achieve profitability. To protect our proprietary position, we have filed patent applications and may file other patent applications in the United States or abroad related to AMX0035 or any future product candidates that are important to our business; we may also license or purchase patents or patent applications filed by others. The patent application process is expensive and time-consuming. We may not be able to file and prosecute all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost or in a timely manner.

If the scope of the patent protection we obtain is not sufficiently broad, we may not be able to prevent others from developing and commercializing technology and products similar or identical to ours. The degree of patent protection we

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require to successfully compete in the marketplace may be unavailable or severely limited in some cases and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep any competitive advantage. We cannot provide any assurances that any of our patents have, or that any of our pending owned patent applications that mature into issued patents will include claims with a scope sufficient to protect our proprietary therapeutics or otherwise provide any competitive advantage. Other parties have developed or may develop technologies that may be related or competitive with our approach, and may have filed or may file patent applications and may have been issued or may be issued patents with claims that overlap or conflict with our patent applications, either by claiming the same compounds, formulations or methods or by claiming subject matter that could dominate our patent position. In addition, the laws of foreign countries may not protect our rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Furthermore, patents have a limited lifespan. In the United States, the natural expiration of a patent is generally twenty years after it is filed. Various extensions may be available; however, the life of a patent, and the protection it affords, is limited. Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new product candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. As a result, our patent portfolio may not provide us with adequate and continuing patent protection sufficient to exclude others from commercializing products similar to AMX0035 or any future product candidates. In the event that an alternative combination, or TURSO as a single drug product, is developed and approved for use in indications for which we may seek approval and falls outside the scope of our patent claims, the marketability and commercial success of AMX0035, if approved, could be materially harmed.

Even if they are unchallenged, our owned patents and pending patent applications, if issued, may not provide us with any meaningful protection or prevent competitors from designing around our patent claims to circumvent our patents by developing similar or alternative therapeutics in a non-infringing manner. For example, a third party may develop a competitive therapy that provides benefits similar to our product candidate but falls outside the scope of our patent protection or license rights. If the patent protection provided by the patent and patent applications we hold or pursue with respect to AMX0035 or any future product candidates is not sufficiently broad to impede such competition, our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidate could be negatively affected, which would harm our business.